References 1-50

Ref. 1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fuchs HE, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2022. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2022;72:7-33.

Ref. 2. American Association for Cancer Research. Aacr Cancer Progress Report. [updated October 13, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 3. Cancer Health Disparities Definitions and Examples – National Cancer Institute. [updated February 17, 2015, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 4. Kaiser Family Foundation. Racial Disparities in Cancer Outcomes, Screening, and Treatment. [updated February 3, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­health-policy/issue-brief/racial-disparities-in-cancer-outcomes­screening-and-treatment/

Ref. 5. National Institutes of Health. Not-Od-15-089: Racial and Ethnic Categories and Definitions for Nih Diversity Programs and for Other Reporting Purposes. [updated April 8, 2015, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 6. National Archives. Ecfr :: 42 Cfr 136.22 — Establishment of Contract Health Service Delivery Areas. [updated April 20, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 7. American Association for Cancer Research. Aacr Report on the Impact of COVID-19 on Cancer Research and Patient Care. [updated February 10, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­cancer-report-2022/

Ref. 8. United States Census Bureau. Quickfacts United States. [updated July 1, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 9. Jim MA, Arias E, Seneca DS, Hoopes MJ, Jim CC, Johnson NJ, et al. Racial Misclassification of American Indians and Alaska Natives by Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area. American Journal of Public Health 2014;104:S295-S302.

Ref. 10. National Cancer Institute. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. [updated January 8, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 11. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. Diabetes and American Indians/Alaska Natives ­the Office of Minority Health. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 12. Tseng C-H. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Kidney Cancer Risk: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis of the National Health Insurance. PLOS ONE 2015;10:e0142480.

Ref. 13. Islami F, Guerra CE, Minihan A, Yabroff KR, Fedewa SA, Sloan K, et al. American Cancer Society’s Report on the Status of Cancer Disparities in the United States, 2021. CA Cancer J Clin 2022;72:112-43.

Ref. 14. Koh HK, Graham G, Glied SA. Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities: The Action Plan from the Department of Health and Human Services. Health Aff (Millwood) 2011;30:1822-9.

Ref. 15. Medina HN, Callahan KE, Morris CR, Thompson CA, Siweya A, Pinheiro PS. Cancer Mortality Disparities among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Populations in California. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021;30:1387-96.

Ref. 16. Pinheiro PS, Medina H, Callahan KE, Kwon D, Ragin C, Sherman R, et al. Cancer Mortality among US Blacks: Variability between African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, and Africans. Cancer Epidemiol 2020;66:101709.

Ref. 17. Miller KD, Ortiz AP, Pinheiro PS, Bandi P, Minihan A, Fuchs HE, et al. Cancer Statistics for the US Hispanic/Latino Population, 2021. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2021;71:466-87.

Ref. 18. Torre LA, Sauer AM, Chen MS, Jr., Kagawa-Singer M, Jemal A, Siegel RL. Cancer Statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging Incidence in Males and Females. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202.

Ref. 19. 2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country. [updated August 12, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­race-ethnicity-measures-reveal-united-states-population-much­more-multiracial.html

Ref. 20. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. Cancer and Asian Americans – the Office of Minority Health. [updated August 26, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 21. Chen MS, Lee RJ, Madan RA, Ta Park V, Shinagawa SM, et al. Charting a Path Towards Asian American Cancer Health Equity: A Way Forward. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2022;djac055.

Ref. 22. Wong RJ, Brosgart CL, Welch S, Block T, Chen M, Cohen C, et al. An Updated Assessment of Chronic Hepatitis B Prevalence among Foreign-Born Persons Living in the United States. Hepatology 2021;74:607-26.

Ref. 23. Huang RJ, Sharp N, Talamoa R, Kapphahn K, Sathye V, Lin B, et al. Disaggregated Mortality from Gastrointestinal Cancers in Asian Americans: Analysis of United States Death Records. International journal of cancer 2021;148:2954-63.

Ref. 24. Lee RJ, Madan RA, Kim J, Posadas EM, Yu EY. Disparities in Cancer Care and the Asian American Population. Oncologist 2021;26:453-60.

Ref. 25. DeRouen MC, Canchola AJ, Thompson CA, Jin A, Nie S, Wong C, et al. Incidence of Lung Cancer among Never-Smoking Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Females. J Natl Cancer Inst 2022;114:78-86.

Ref. 26. Ha SY, Choi SJ, Cho JH, Choi HJ, Lee J, Jung K, et al. Lung Cancer in Never-Smoker Asian Females Is Driven by Oncogenic Mutations, Most Often Involving Egfr. Oncotarget 2015;6:5465-74.

Ref. 27. Pinheiro PS, Morris CR, Liu L, Bungum TJ, Altekruse SF. The Impact of Follow-up Type and Missed Deaths on Population-Based Cancer Survival Studies for Hispanics and Asians. JNCI Monographs 2014;2014:210-7.

Ref. 28. Chen MS, Jr. Cancer Health Disparities among Asian Americans: What We Do and What We Need to Do. Cancer 2005;104:2895-902.

Ref. 29. Stringer-Reasor EM, Elkhanany A, Khoury K, Simon MA, Newman LA. Disparities in Breast Cancer Associated with African American Identity. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021;41:e29-e46.

Ref. 30. Sung H, DeSantis C, Jemal A. Subtype-Specific Breast Cancer Incidence Rates in Black Versus White Men in the United States. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 2019;4(1):pkz091.

Ref. 31. McHugh J, Saunders EJ, Dadaev T, McGrowder E, Bancroft E, Kote-Jarai Z, et al. Prostate Cancer Risk in Men of Differing Genetic Ancestry and Approaches to Disease Screening and Management in These Groups. Br J Can 2021;126(10):1366-73.

Ref. 32. Dess RT, Hartman HE, Mahal BA, Soni PD, Jackson WC, Cooperberg MR, et al. Association of Black Race with Prostate Cancer–Specific and Other-Cause Mortality. JAMA Oncol 2019;5:975-83.

Ref. 33. Cackowski FC, Mahal B, Heath EI, Carthon B. Evolution of Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment: Is This a New Normal? Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021;41:1-12.

Ref. 34. Rutter CM, Knudsen AB, Lin JS, Bouskill KE. Black and White Differences in Colorectal Cancer Screening and Screening Outcomes: A Narrative Review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021;30:3-12.

Ref. 35. Holowatyj AN, Ruterbusch JJ, Rozek LS, Cote ML, Stoffel EM. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Survival among Patients with Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2148-56.

Ref. 36. Sonderman JS, Bethea TN, Kitahara CM, Patel AV, Harvey C, Knutsen SF, et al. Multiple Myeloma Mortality in Relation to Obesity among African Americans. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2016;(10):djw120.

Ref. 37. Landgren O, Kyle RA, Pfeiffer RM, Katzmann JA, Caporaso NE, Hayes RB, et al. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (Mgus) Consistently Precedes Multiple Myeloma: A Prospective Study. Blood 2009;113:5412-7.

Ref. 38. Schinasi LH, Brown EE, Camp NJ, Wang SS, Hofmann JN, Chiu BC, et al. Multiple Myeloma and Family History of Lymphohaematopoietic Cancers: Results from the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium. Br J Haematol 2016;175:87-101.

Ref. 39. Llanos AAM, Li J, Tsui J, Gibbons J, Pawlish K, Nwodili F, et al. Variation in Cancer Incidence Rates among Non-Hispanic Black Individuals Disaggregated by Nativity and Birthplace, 2005­2017: A Population-Based Cancer Registry Analysis. Frontiers in Oncology 2022;12:857548.

Ref. 40. Martinez Tyson D, Medina-Ramirez P, Flores AM, Siegel R, Aguado Loi C. Unpacking Hispanic Ethnicity—Cancer Mortality Differentials among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2004–2014. Frontiers in Public Health 2018;6:219.

Ref. 41. National Cancer Institute. State Cancer Profiles Puerto Rico. [updated April, 22 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 42. Zavala VA, Serrano-Gomez SJ, Dutil J, Fejerman L. Genetic Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Latin America. Genes (Basel) 2019;10:153.

Ref. 43. Zavala VA, Bracci PM, Carethers JM, Carvajal-Carmona L, Coggins NB, Cruz-Correa MR, et al. Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States. Br J Can 2021;124:315-32.

Ref. 44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hispanics/Latinos and Tobacco Use. [updated March 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult Obesity Facts. [updated November 12, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 46. Tsang SH, Avilés-Santa ML, Abnet CC, Brito MO, Daviglus ML, Wassertheil-Smoller S, et al. Seroprevalence and Determinants of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2022;20:e438-e51.

Ref. 47. Pinheiro PS, Medina HN, Callahan KE, Jones PD, Brown CP, Altekruse SF, et al. The Association between Etiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Race-Ethnicity in Florida. Liver International 2020;40:1201-10.

Ref. 48. Gomez-Quiroz LE, Roman S. Influence of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors in the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mexico. Annals of Hepatology 2022;27:100649.

Ref. 49. Escobar B, Amboree TL, Sonawane K, Deshmukh AA, McGee LU, Rodriguez AM, et al. Human Papillomavirus Awareness among Foreign- and US-Born Hispanics, United States, 2017-2018. Prev Med Rep 2021;22:101379.

Ref. 50. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. Cancer and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. [updated July 29, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

References 51-100

Ref. 51. University of Hawai’i Cancer Center. Hawai’i Cancer at a Glance 2012-2016. [updated 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 52. Van Dyne EA, Saraiya M, White A, Novinson D, Senkomago V, Buenconsejo-Lum L. Cancer Mortality in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands, 2008-2013. Hawaii J Health Soc Welf 2020;79:99-107.

Ref. 53. Pacific Regional Central Cancer Registry. Cancer in the US Affliliated Pacific Islands 2007-2015. [updated December 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 54. Palafox NA, Riklon S, Alik W, Hixon AL. Health Consequences and Health Systems Response to the Pacific U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program. Pac Health Dialog 2007;14:170-8.

Ref. 55. Moss JL, Pinto CN, Srinivasan S, Cronin KA, Croyle RT. Persistent Poverty and Cancer Mortality Rates: An Analysis of County-Level Poverty Designations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020;29:1949-54.

Ref. 56. Boehmer U, Gereige J, Winter M, Ozonoff A, Scout N. Transgender Individuals’ Cancer Survivorship: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study. Cancer 2020;126:2829-36.

Ref. 57. Zhou K, Gainey CS, Dodge JL, Setiawan VW, Liu L, Cockburn MG, et al. Diverging Incidence Trends for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rural and Urban Settings in the United States. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 2021.

Ref. 58. Health Resources and Services Administration. Defining Rural Population. [updated October 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 59. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Rural-Urban Continuum Codes. [updated December 10, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­urban-continuum-codes/

Ref. 60. Henley SJ, Anderson RN, Thomas CC, Massetti GM, Peaker B, Richardson LC. Invasive Cancer Incidence, 2004-2013, and Deaths, 2006-2015, in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties – United States. MMWR Surveill Summ 2017;66:1-13.

Ref. 61. Zahnd WE, James AS, Jenkins WD, Izadi SR, Fogleman AJ, Steward DE, et al. Rural-Urban Differences in Cancer Incidence and Trends in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2018;27:1265-74.

Ref. 62. Tran L, Tran P. US Urban–Rural Disparities in Breast Cancer-Screening Practices at the National, Regional, and State Level, 2012–2016. Cancer Causes & Control 2019;30:1045-55.

Ref. 63. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An Update on Cancer Deaths in the United States. [updated February 28, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 64. Hussaini S, Blackford AL, Gupta A. Rural-Urban Disparities in Mortality from Gastrointestinal (Gi) Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2022;40:644.

Ref. 65. GALLUP. Lgbt Identification Rises to 5.6% in Latest U.S. Estimate. [updated February 24, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­latest-estimate.aspx

Ref. 66. Quinn GP, Sanchez JA, Sutton SK, Vadaparampil ST, Nguyen GT, Green BL, et al. Cancer and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender/Transsexual, and Queer/Questioning (Lgbtq) Populations. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65:384-400.

Ref. 67. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities. The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People. [updated 2011, cited Available from:

Ref. 68. National LGBT Cancer Network. Out: The National Cancer Survey. [updated February 18, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­cancer-survey/

Ref. 69. National Academies of Sciences E, Medicine, Division of B, Social S, Education, Committee on P, et al. The National Academies Collection: Reports Funded by National Institutes of Health. In: White J, Sepúlveda MJ, Patterson CJ, editors. Understanding the Well-Being of LGBTQI+ Populations. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US);2020.

Ref. 70. Pratt-Chapman ML, Alpert AB, Castillo DA. Health Outcomes of Sexual and Gender Minorities after Cancer: A Systematic Review. Systematic Reviews 2021;10:183.

Ref. 71. National Institutes of Health. Strategic Plan to Advance Research on the Health and Well-Being of Sexual and Gender Minorities. [updated November 22, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 72. United States Census Bureau. Poverty. [updated February 16, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 73. Moyer VA. Screening for Prostate Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med 2012;157:120-34.

Ref. 74. Zhang AC, Rasul R, Golden A, Feuerstein MA. Incidence and Mortality Trends of Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Analysis. Canadian Urological Association Journal 2021;15:E637-43.

Ref. 75. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Prostate Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA 2018;319:1901-13.

Ref. 76. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. COVID-19 Dashboard. [updated April 22, 2022, cited Available from:

Ref. 77. Wang Q, Berger NA, Xu R. When Hematologic Malignancies Meet COVID-19 in the United States: Infections, Death and Disparities. Blood Rev 2021;47:100775.

Ref. 78. Grivas P, Khaki AR, Wise-Draper TM, French B, Hennessy C, Hsu CY, et al. Association of Clinical Factors and Recent Anticancer Therapy with COVID-19 Severity among Patients with Cancer: A Report from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium. Annals of Oncology 2021;32:787-800.

Ref. 79. Fu J, Reid SA, French B, Hennessy C, Hwang C, Gatson NT, et al. Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Outcomes among Black and White Patients with Cancer. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5:e224304-e.

Ref. 80. Asare M, Flannery M, Kamen C. Social Determinants of Health: A Framework for Studying Cancer Health Disparities and Minority Participation in Research. Oncol Nurs Forum 2017;44:20-3.

Ref. 81. Warnecke RB, Oh A, Breen N, Gehlert S, Paskett E, Tucker KL, et al. Approaching Health Disparities from a Population Perspective: The National Institutes of Health Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities. American Journal of Public Health 2008;98:1608-15.

Ref. 82. National Cancer Institute. About the Nci Equity and Inclusion Program. [updated June 14, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­inclusion-program/about

Ref. 83. National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities. National Minority Health and Health Disparities Research Framework. [updated December 2, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 84. Crenshaw K. Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review 1991;43:1241-99.

Ref. 85. govinfo. Public Law 111 – 5 – American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. [updated February 17, 2009, cited 2022 April 22 2022]. Available from:

Ref. 86. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes. [updated July 3, 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­area-codes/

Ref. 87. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Social Determinants of Health. [updated August 18, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­determinants-health

Ref. 88. American Psychological Association. Socioeconomic Status. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 89. National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Structural Racism and Discrimination. [updated June 14, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 90. National Institutes of Health. Glossary. [updated February 10, 2016, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 90a. American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Disparities Progress Report 2020 [updated 2020 October 13, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 91. Mensah GA, Riley WT. Social Determinants of Health and Implementation Research: Three Decades of Progress and a Need for Convergence. Ethn Dis 2021;31:1-4.

Ref. 92. Homan P, Brown TH, King B. Structural Intersectionality as a New Direction for Health Disparities Research. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 2021;62:350-70.

Ref. 93. Bailey ZD, Krieger N, Agénor M, Graves J, Linos N, Bassett MT. Structural Racism and Health Inequities in the USA: Evidence and Interventions. Lancet 2017;389:1453-63.

Ref. 94. Agénor M. Future Directions for Incorporating Intersectionality into Quantitative Population Health Research. American Journal of Public Health 2020;110:803-6.

Ref. 95. Kelly-Brown J, Palmer Kelly E, Obeng-Gyasi S, Chen J, Pawlik TM. Intersectionality in Cancer Care: A Systematic Review of Current Research and Future Directions. Psycho­Oncology;31:705-716.

Ref. 96. United States Census Bureau. Income and Poverty in the United States: 2020. [updated September 14, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 97. Goel N, Westrick AC, Bailey ZD, Hernandez A, Balise RR, Goldfinger E, et al. Structural Racism and Breast Cancer-Specific Survival: Impact of Economic and Racial Residential Segregation. Ann Surg 2022;275:776-83.

Ref. 98. Cham S, Li A, Rauh-Hain JA, Tergas AI, Hershman DL, Wright JD, et al. Association between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Inequality and Cervical Cancer Incidence Rates in New York City. JAMA Oncol 2022;8:159-61.

Ref. 99. Pew Research Center. Home Broadband Adoption, Computer Ownership Vary by Race, Ethnicity in the U.S. [updated August 20, 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­computer-ownership-vary-by-race-ethnicity-in-the-u-s/

Ref. 100. Gomez SL, Shariff-Marco S, DeRouen M, Keegan TH, Yen IH, Mujahid M, et al. The Impact of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment Factors across the Cancer Continuum: Current Research, Methodological Considerations, and Future Directions. Cancer 2015;121:2314-30.

References 101-150

Ref. 101. Koohsari J, Nakaya T, McCormack G, Oka K. Built Environment Design and Cancer Prevention through the Lens of Inequality. Cities 2021.

Ref. 102. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Environmental Health. [updated August 18, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 103. National Equity Atlas. Neighborhood Poverty. [updated January 1, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 104. Cheng I, Tseng C, Wu J, Yang J, Conroy SM, Shariff-Marco S, et al. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Breast Cancer Risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. International journal of cancer 2020;146:699-711.

Ref. 105. Collin LJ, Gaglioti AH, Beyer KM, Zhou Y, Moore MA, Nash R, et al. Neighborhood-Level Redlining and Lending Bias Are Associated with Breast Cancer Mortality in a Large and Diverse Metropolitan Area. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021;30:53-60.

Ref. 106. Castillo F, Mora AM, Kayser GL, Vanos J, Hyland C, Yang AR, et al. Environmental Health Threats to Latino Migrant Farmworkers. Annual Review of Public Health 2021;42:257-76.

Ref. 107. Froelich W. Pesticide Plays a Large Role in Development of Testicular Cancer. Oncology Times 2020;42:33.

Ref. 108. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. What Is Mental Health? [updated February 28, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­mental-health

Ref. 109. Eckerling A, Ricon-Becker I, Sorski L, Sandbank E, Ben-Eliyahu S. Stress and Cancer: Mechanisms, Significance and Future Directions. Nature Reviews Cancer 2021;21:767-85.

Ref. 110. Huang W, Aune D, Ferrari G, Zhang L, Lan Y, Nie J, et al. Psychological Distress and All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer Mortality among Adults with and without Diabetes. Clin Epidemiol 2021;13:555-65.

Ref. 111. Niedzwiedz CL, Knifton L, Robb KA, Katikireddi SV, Smith DJ. Depression and Anxiety among People Living with and Beyond Cancer: A Growing Clinical and Research Priority. BMC Cancer 2019;19:943.

Ref. 112. Chen WC, Boreta L, Braunstein SE, Rabow MW, Kaplan LE, Tenenbaum JD, et al. Association of Mental Health Diagnosis with Race and All-Cause Mortality after a Cancer Diagnosis: Large-Scale Analysis of Electronic Health Record Data. Cancer 2022;128:344-52.

Ref. 113. Oh H-M, Son C-G. The Risk of Psychological Stress on Cancer Recurrence: A Systematic Review. Cancers 2021;13:5816.

Ref. 114. Agaku IT, Odani S, Okuyemi KS, Armour B. Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking among US Adults, 2002–2016. Tobacco Control 2020;29:269-76.

Ref. 115. Lee H, Singh GK. The Association between Psychological Distress and Cancer Mortality in the United States: Results from the 1997-2014 NHIS-NDI Record Linkage Study. Ann Behav Med 2021;55:621-40.

Ref. 116. Barber LE, Zirpoli GR, Cozier YC, Rosenberg L, Petrick JL, Bertrand KA, et al. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Individual-Level Life Stressors in Relation to Breast Cancer Incidence in US Black Women. Breast Cancer Research 2021;23:108.

Ref. 117. Lorant V, Deliège D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, Ansseau M. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Depression: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2003;157:98-112.

Ref. 118. Adjei NK, Schlüter DK, Straatmann VS, Melis G, Fleming KM, McGovern R, et al. Impact of Poverty and Family Adversity on Adolescent Health: A Multi-Trajectory Analysis Using the Uk Millennium Cohort Study. Lancet Reg Health Eur 2022;13:100279.

Ref. 119. Beemer CJ, Stearns-Yoder KA, Schuldt SJ, Kinney KA, Lowry CA, Postolache TT, et al. A Brief Review on the Mental Health for Select Elements of the Built Environment. Indoor and Built Environment 2021;30:152-65.

Ref. 120. Williams DR. Stress and the Mental Health of Populations of Color: Advancing Our Understanding of Race-Related Stressors. J Health Soc Behav 2018;59:466-85.

Ref. 121. American Cancer Society. Cancer Prevention & Early Detection Facts & Figures 2021-2022. [updated January 12, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­prevention-and-early-detection-facts-and-figures/2021-cancer­prevention-and-early-detection.pdf

Ref. 122. Bandera EV, Alfano CM, Qin B, Kang DW, Friel CP, Dieli-Conwright CM. Harnessing Nutrition and Physical Activity for Breast Cancer Prevention and Control to Reduce Racial/Ethnic Cancer Health Disparities. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021;41:1-17.

Ref. 123. Dash C, Taylor TR, Makambi KH, Hicks J, Hagberg JM, Adams-Campbell LL. Effect of Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome in Black Women by Family History and Predicted Risk of Breast Cancer: The Fierce Study. Cancer 2018;124:3355-63.

Ref. 124. Hudson L, Sharp K, Prichard C, Ickes MJ, Alameh S, Vanderford NL. Cancer Curriculum for Appalachian Kentucky Middle and High Schools. Journal of Appalachian Health 2021;3:45.

Ref. 125. Valenzuela R, Morales A, Sheen J, Rangel S, Salinas JJ. The Implementation of Evidence-Based Obesity Education Curricula to Prevent Cancer in a Predominantly Mexican-American Community on the U.S.-Mexico Border. J Cancer Educ 2021:1-10.

Ref. 126. Griffith DM, Jaeger EC. Mighty Men: A Faith-Based Weight Loss Intervention to Reduce Cancer Risk in African American Men. Advances in cancer research 2020;146:189-217.

Ref. 127. Zeinomar N, Grant-Alfieri A, Burke KR, de Hoz M, Tehranifar P, Walker DAH, et al. Cancer Risk Reduction through Education of Adolescents: Development of a Tailored Cancer Risk-Reduction Educational Tool. J Cancer Educ 2021.

Ref. 128. Murphy ST, Frank LB, Chatterjee JS, Moran MB, Zhao N, Herrera PAd, et al. Comparing the Relative Efficacy of Narrative Vs Nonnarrative Health Messages in Reducing Health Disparities Using a Randomized Trial. American Journal of Public Health 2015;105:2117-23.

Ref. 129. Ochoa CY, Murphy ST, Frank LB, Baezconde-Garbanati LA. Using a Culturally Tailored Narrative to Increase Cervical Cancer Detection among Spanish-Speaking Mexican-American Women. Journal of Cancer Education 2020;35:736-42.

Ref. 130. Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium and the University of Vermont. Smartphone-Based Financial Incentives to Promote Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Women. [updated July 29, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 131. Joo JY, Liu MF. Culturally Tailored Interventions for Ethnic Minorities: A Scoping Review. Nursing Open 2021;8:2078-90.

Ref. 132. Siddharth S, Sharma D. Racial Disparity and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in African-American Women: A Multifaceted Affair between Obesity, Biology, and Socioeconomic Determinants. Cancers 2018;10:514.

Ref. 133. Stark A, Kleer CG, Martin I, Awuah B, Nsiah-Asare A, Takyi V, et al. African Ancestry and Higher Prevalence of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Cancer 2010;116:4926-32.

Ref. 134. Newman LA, Jenkins B, Chen Y, Oppong JK, Adjei E, Jibril AS, et al. Hereditary Susceptibility for Triple Negative Breast Cancer Associated with Western Sub-Saharan African Ancestry: Results from an International Surgical Breast Cancer Collaborative. Ann Surg 2019;270:484-92.

Ref. 135. Conti DV, Darst BF, Moss LC, Saunders EJ, Sheng X, Chou A, et al. Trans-Ancestry Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Prostate Cancer Identifies New Susceptibility Loci and Informs Genetic Risk Prediction. Nature genetics 2021;53:65-75.

Ref. 136. The Economist. America Is a Health-Care Outlier in the Developed World. [updated April 26, 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­report/2018/04/26/america-is-a-health-care-outlier-in-the­developed-world

Ref. 137. Bhatia S, Landier W, Paskett ED, Peters KB, Merrill JK, Phillips J, et al. Rural-Urban Disparities in Cancer Outcomes: Opportunities for Future Research. J Natl Cancer Inst 2022;djac030.

Ref. 138. Tanaka R, Matsuzaka M, Nakaji S, Sasaki Y. Influence of Distance from Home to Hospital on Survival among Lung Cancer Patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016;17:5025-30.

Ref. 139. Hao S, Snyder RA, Irish W, Parikh AA. Association of Race and Health Insurance in Treatment Disparities of Colon Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis Utilizing a National Population Database in the United States. PLOS Medicine 2021;18:e1003842.

Ref. 140. Hamad R, Ruffini K, Bitler M, Currie J. Leveraging the Urgency of Economic Disparities Driven by the COVID-19 Pandemic to Strengthen the U.S. Safety Net. NAM Perspect 2022.

Ref. 141. Berrian JL, Liu Y, Lian M, Schmaltz CL, Colditz GA. Relationship between Insurance Status and Outcomes for Patients with Breast Cancer in Missouri. Cancer 2021;127:931-7.

Ref. 142. Ko NY, Hong S, Winn RA, Calip GS. Association of Insurance Status and Racial Disparities with the Detection of Early-Stage Breast Cancer. JAMA Oncol 2020;6:385-92.

Ref. 143. Panzone J, Welch C, Pinkhasov R, Jacob JM, Shapiro O, Basnet A, et al. The Influence of Race on Financial Toxicity among Cancer Patients. J Clin Oncol 2021;39:1525.

Ref. 144. Blythe J.S. Adamson P, Aaron B. Cohen MD, Cary P. Gross MD, Melissa Estévez MS, Kelly Magee F-B, Erin Williams BA, et al. ACA Medicaid Expansion Association with Racial Disparity Reductions in Timely Cancer Treatment. The American Journal of Managed Care 2021;27.

Ref. 145. Kaiser Family Foundation. KFF/the Undefeated Survey on Race and Health. [updated October 14, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­undefeated-survey-on-race-and-health-main-findings/

Ref. 146. A Medical Hell Recounted by Its Victims. [updated February 26, 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 147. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Tuskegee Timeline. [updated April 22, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 148. Henrietta Lacks: Science Must Right a Historical Wrong. Nature 2020;585:7.

Ref. 149. Niranjan SJ, Wenzel JA, Martin MY, Fouad MN, Vickers SM, Konety BR, et al. Perceived Institutional Barriers among Clinical and Research Professionals: Minority Participation in Oncology Clinical Trials. JCO Oncol Pract 2021;17:e666-e75.

Ref. 150. Unger JM, Hershman DL, Till C, Minasian LM, Osarogiagbon RU, Fleury ME, et al. “When Offered to Participate”: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Patient Agreement to Participate in Cancer Clinical Trials. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2020;113:244-57.

References 151-200

Ref. 151. Thornton RL, Glover CM, Cené CW, Glik DC, Henderson JA, Williams DR. Evaluating Strategies for Reducing Health Disparities by Addressing the Social Determinants of Health. Health Aff (Millwood) 2016;35:1416-23.

Ref. 152. American Cancer Society. The Costs of Cancer 2020. [updated October 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­of-Cancer-2020-10222020.pdf

Ref. 153. 153.Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Nhe Fact Sheet. [updated December 15, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­Fact-Sheet

Ref. 154. Yabroff KR, Mariotto A, Tangka F, Zhao J, Islami F, Sung H, et al. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, Part 2: Patient Economic Burden Associated with Cancer Care. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2021;113:1670-82.

Ref. 155. C-Change. The Societal and Economic Impact of Cancer Health Disparities. [updated December 8, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 156. Islami F, Miller KD, Siegel RL, Zheng Z, Zhao J, Han X, et al. National and State Estimates of Lost Earnings from Cancer Deaths in the United States. JAMA Oncol 2019;5:e191460.

Ref. 157. Zhao J, Miller KD, Islami F, Zheng Z, Han X, Ma J, et al. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Lost Earnings from Cancer Deaths in the United States. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 2020;4.

Ref. 158. Klein CA. Parallel Progression of Primary Tumours and Metastases. Nature Reviews Cancer 2009;9:302-12.

Ref. 159. Martini R, Newman L, Davis M. Breast Cancer Disparities in Outcomes; Unmasking Biological Determinants Associated with Racial and Genetic Diversity. Clinical & Experimental Metastasis 2021;39:7-14..

Ref. 160. Freedman JA, Abo MA, Allen TA, Piwarski SA, Wegermann K, Patierno SR. Biological Aspects of Cancer Health Disparities. Annual Review of Medicine 2021;72:229-41.

Ref. 161. Nelson B. How Structural Racism Can Kill Cancer Patients. Cancer Cytopathology 2020;128:83-4.

Ref. 162. Ashing KT, Jones V, Bedell F, Phillips T, Erhunmwunsee L. Calling Attention to the Role of Race-Driven Societal Determinants of Health on Aggressive Tumor Biology: A Focus on Black Americans. JCO Oncology Practice 2022;18:15-22.

Ref. 163. Zeigler-Johnson CM, Tierney A, Rebbeck TR, Rundle A. Prostate Cancer Severity Associations with Neighborhood Deprivation. Prostate Cancer 2011;2011:846263.

Ref. 164. Mbemi A, Khanna S, Njiki S, Yedjou CG, Tchounwou PB. Impact of Gene–Environment Interactions on Cancer Development. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020;17:8089.

Ref. 165. Mersha TB, Abebe T. Self-Reported Race/Ethnicity in the Age of Genomic Research: Its Potential Impact on Understanding Health Disparities. Human Genomics 2015;9:1.

Ref. 166. Timmermann A, Friedrich T. Late Pleistocene Climate Drivers of Early Human Migration. Nature 2016;538:92-5.

Ref. 167. Winkler C. Is There a Genetic Basis for Health Disparities in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease? Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine: A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine 2010;77:149-59.

Ref. 168. Raca G, Abdel-Azim H, Yue F, Broach J, Payne JL, Reeves ME, et al. Increased Incidence of Ikzf1 Deletions and Igh-Crlf2 Translocations in B-All of Hispanic/Latino Children—a Novel Health Disparity. Leukemia 2021;35:2399-402.

Ref. 169. Wen W, Shu X-o, Guo X, Cai Q, Long J, Bolla MK, et al. Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk Based on Common Genetic Variants in Women of East Asian Ancestry. Breast Cancer Research 2016;18:124.

Ref. 170. Carrot-Zhang J, Soca-Chafre G, Patterson N, Thorner AR, Nag A, Watson J, et al. Genetic Ancestry Contributes to Somatic Mutations in Lung Cancers from Admixed Latin American Populations. Cancer Discovery 2021;11:591-8.

Ref. 171. Ahmad A, Azim S, Zubair H, Khan MA, Singh S, Carter JE, et al. Epigenetic Basis of Cancer Health Disparities: Looking Beyond Genetic Differences. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) ­Reviews on Cancer 2017;1868:16-28.

Ref. 172. Mehrotra J, Ganpat MM, Kanaan Y, Fackler MJ, McVeigh M, Lahti-Domenici J, et al. Estrogen Receptor/Progesterone Receptor-Negative Breast Cancers of Young African-American Women Have a Higher Frequency of Methylation of Multiple Genes Than Those of Caucasian Women1. Clinical Cancer Research 2004;10:2052-7.

Ref. 173. Kwabi-Addo B, Wang S, Chung W, Jelinek J, Patierno SR, Wang B-D, et al. Identification of Differentially Methylated Genes in Normal Prostate Tissues from African American and Caucasian Men. Clinical Cancer Research 2010;16:3539-47.

Ref. 174. Davis M, Martini R, Newman L, Elemento O, White J, Verma A, et al. Identification of Distinct Heterogenic Subtypes and Molecular Signatures Associated with African Ancestry in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Using Quantified Genetic Ancestry Models in Admixed Race Populations. Cancers (Basel) 2020;12.

Ref. 175. Wang B-D, Ceniccola K, Hwang S, Andrawis R, Horvath A, Freedman JA, et al. Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness and Drug Resistance in African American Prostate Cancer. Nature communications 2017;8:15921.

Ref. 176. Moorman AV, Schwab C, Ensor HM, Russell LJ, Morrison H, Jones L, et al. Igh@ Translocations, Crlf2 Deregulation, and Microdeletions in Adolescents and Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:3100-8.

Ref. 177. Rayford W, Beksac AT, Alger J, Alshalalfa M, Ahmed M, Khan I, et al. Comparative Analysis of 1152 African-American and European-American Men with Prostate Cancer Identifies Distinct Genomic and Immunological Differences. Communications Biology 2021;4:670.

Ref. 178. Clocchiatti A, Cora E, Zhang Y, Dotto GP. Sexual Dimorphism in Cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer 2016;16:330-9.

Ref. 179. de Blok CJM, Dreijerink KMA, den Heijer M. Cancer Risk in Transgender People. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 2019;48:441-52.

Ref. 180. Jackson SS, Nambiar KZ, O’Callaghan S, Berner AM. Understanding the Role of Sex Hormones in Cancer for the Transgender Community. Trends in Cancer 2022;8:273-5.

Ref. 181. de Blok CJM, Wiepjes CM, Nota NM, van Engelen K, Adank MA, Dreijerink KMA, et al. Breast Cancer Risk in Transgender People Receiving Hormone Treatment: Nationwide Cohort Study in the Netherlands. BMJ 2019;365:l1652.

Ref. 182. de Nie I, de Blok CJM, van der Sluis TM, Barbé E, Pigot GLS, Wiepjes CM, et al. Prostate Cancer Incidence under Androgen Deprivation: Nationwide Cohort Study in Trans Women Receiving Hormone Treatment. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020;105:e3293-e9.

Ref. 183. Martin DN, Boersma BJ, Yi M, Reimers M, Howe TM, Yfantis HG, et al. Differences in the Tumor Microenvironment between African-American and European-American Breast Cancer Patients. PLOS ONE 2009;4:e4531.

Ref. 184. Kiely M, Lord B, Ambs S. Immune Response and Inflammation in Cancer Health Disparities. Trends in Cancer 2022;8:316-27.

Ref. 185. Yao S, Cheng T-YD, Elkhanany A, Yan L, Omilian A, Abrams SI, et al. Breast Tumor Microenvironment in Black Women: A Distinct Signature of Cd8+ T-Cell Exhaustion. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2021;113:1036-43.

Ref. 186. Elgundi Z, Papanicolaou M, Major G, Cox TR, Melrose J, Whitelock JM, et al. Cancer Metastasis: The Role of the Extracellular Matrix and the Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Perlecan. Frontiers in Oncology 2020;9:1482.

Ref. 187. Angel PM, Saunders J, Jensen-Smith H, Bruner E, Ford ME, Berkhiser S, et al. Abstract P2-10-18: Deciphering Racial Disparities in Breast Cancer Collagen Reorganization by Targeted Extracellular Matrix Proteomics. Cancer Research 2020;80:P2-10-18.

Ref. 188. Kim G, Pastoriza JM, Condeelis JS, Sparano JA, Filippou PS, Karagiannis GS, et al. The Contribution of Race to Breast Tumor Microenvironment Composition and Disease Progression. Frontiers in Oncology 2020;10.

Ref. 189. Nédélec Y, Sanz J, Baharian G, Szpiech ZA, Pacis A, Dumaine A, et al. Genetic Ancestry and Natural Selection Drive Population Differences in Immune Responses to Pathogens. Cell 2016;167:657-69.e21.

Ref. 190. Sartor O, Armstrong AJ, Ahaghotu C, McLeod DG, Cooperberg MR, Penson DF, et al. Survival of African-American and Caucasian Men after Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy: Outcomes from the Proceed Registry. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 2020;23:517-26.

Ref. 191. Sentana-Lledo D, Sartor O, Balk SP, Einstein DJ. Immune Mechanisms Behind Prostate Cancer in Men of African Ancestry: A Review. The Prostate;2022;82:883-93.

Ref. 192. Huang FW, Mosquera JM, Garofalo A, Oh C, Baco M, Amin-Mansour A, et al. Exome Sequencing of African-American Prostate Cancer Reveals Loss-of-Function Erf Mutations. Cancer Discovery 2017;7:973-83.

Ref. 193. Wickland DP, Sherman ME, Radisky DC, Mansfield AS, Asmann YW. Lower Exome Sequencing Coverage of Ancestrally African Patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2022.

Ref. 194. Casaletto J, Parsons M, Markello C, Iwasaki Y, Momozawa Y, Spurdle AB, et al. Federated Analysis of Brca1 and Brca2 Variation in a Japanese Cohort. Cell Genomics 2022;2:100109.

Ref. 195. Sirén J, Monlong J, Chang X, Novak AM, Eizenga JM, Markello C, et al. Pangenomics Enables Genotyping of Known Structural Variants in 5202 Diverse Genomes. Science 2021;374:abg8871.

Ref. 196. NIIH’s All of Us Research Program Releases First Genomic Dataset of Nearly 100,000 Whole Genome Sequences. Available from:­releases/nih-s-all-us-research-program-releases-first-genomic­dataset-nearly-100000-whole-genome-sequences

Ref. 197. Goel N, Kim DY, Guo JA, Zhao D, Mahal BA, Alshalalfa M. Racial Differences in Genomic Profiles of Breast Cancer. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5:e220573.

Ref. 198. Kamran SC, Xie J, Cheung ATM, Mavura MY, Song H, Palapattu EL, et al. Tumor Mutations across Racial Groups in a Real-World Data Registry. JCO Precision Oncology 2021:1654-8.

Ref. 199. Schumacher FR, Basourakos SP, Lewicki PJ, Vince R, Spratt DE, Barbieri CE, et al. Race and Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer. JCO Precision Oncology 2021:1650-3.

Ref. 200. Halmai NB, Carvajal-Carmona LG. Diversifying Preclinical Research Tools: Expanding Patient-Derived Models to Address Cancer Health Disparities. Trends in Cancer 2022;8:291-4.

References 201-250

Ref. 201. Siddharth S, Parida S, Muniraj N, Hercules S, Lim D, Nagalingam A, et al. Concomitant Activation of Gli1 and Notch1 Contributes to Racial Disparity of Human Triple Negative Breast Cancer Progression. eLife 2021;10:e70729.

Ref. 202. African American Prostate Cancer Study. Home [Updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 203. African American Prostate Cancer Study. What Is Respond? [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 204. Kehl KL, Lathan CS, Johnson BE, Schrag D. Race, Poverty, and Initial Implementation of Precision Medicine for Lung Cancer. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2018;111:431-4.

Ref. 205. Palazzo LL, Sheehan DF, Tramontano AC, Kong CY. Disparities and Trends in Genetic Testing and Erlotinib Treatment among Metastatic Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2019;28:926-34.

Ref. 206. Childers KK, Maggard-Gibbons M, Macinko J, Childers CP. National Distribution of Cancer Genetic Testing in the United States: Evidence for a Gender Disparity in Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. JAMA Oncol 2018;4:876-9.

Ref. 207. Sheinson DM, Wong WB, Meyer CS, Stergiopoulos S, Lofgren KT, Flores C, et al. Trends in Use of Next-Generation Sequencing in Patients with Solid Tumors by Race and Ethnicity after Implementation of the Medicare National Coverage Determination. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2138219.

Ref. 208. Verma V, Haque W, Cushman TR, Lin C, Simone CBI, Chang JY, et al. Racial and Insurance-Related Disparities in Delivery of Immunotherapy-Type Compounds in the United States. Journal of Immunotherapy 2019;42:55-64.

Ref. 209. Stein JN, Charlot M, Cykert S. Building toward Antiracist Cancer Research and Practice: The Case of Precision Medicine. JCO Oncology Practice 2021;17:273-7.

Ref. 210. Islami F, Goding Sauer A, Miller KD, Siegel RL, Fedewa SA, Jacobs EJ, et al. Proportion and Number of Cancer Cases and Deaths Attributable to Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors in the United States. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:31-54.

Ref. 211. Sung H, Hyun N, Leach CR, Yabroff KR, Jemal A. Association of First Primary Cancer with Risk of Subsequent Primary Cancer among Survivors of Adult-Onset Cancers in the United States. JAMA 2020;324:2521-35.

Ref. 212. Petrelli F, Cortellini A, Indini A, Tomasello G, Ghidini M, Nigro O, et al. Association of Obesity with Survival Outcomes in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e213520.

Ref. 213. Cornelius ME, Loretan CG, Wang TW, Jamal A, Homa DM. Tobacco Product Use among Adults – United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:397-405.

Ref. 214. National Center for Chronic Disease P, Health Promotion Office on S, Health. Reports of the Surgeon General. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2014.

Ref. 215. Alcaraz KI, Wiedt TL, Daniels EC, Yabroff KR, Guerra CE, Wender RC. Understanding and Addressing Social Determinants to Advance Cancer Health Equity in the United States: A Blueprint for Practice, Research, and Policy. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2020;70:31-46.

Ref. 216. United States Public Health Service Office of the Surgeon G, National Center for Chronic Disease P, Health Promotion Office on S, Health. Publications and Reports of the Surgeon General. Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services; 2020.

Ref. 217. Tsai J, Homa DM, Gentzke AS, Mahoney M, Sharapova SR, Sosnoff CS, et al. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke among Nonsmokers – United States, 1988-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1342-6.

Ref. 218. Gentzke AS, Wang TW, Cornelius M, Park-Lee E, Ren C, Sawdey MD, et al. Tobacco Product Use and Associated Factors among Middle and High School Students – National Youth Tobacco Survey, United States, 2021. MMWR Surveill Summ 2022;71:1-29.

Ref. 219. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lung Cancer Incidence in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population, United States Purchased/Referred Care Delivery Areas—2012–2016. [updated October 22, 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­AIAN-PRCDA-2012-2016.htm

Ref. 220. Giaquinto AN, Miller KD, Tossas KY, Winn RA, Jemal A, Siegel RL. Cancer Statistics for African American/Black People 2022. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians;2022;72:202-229.

Ref. 221. National Cancer Institute. Rural-Urban Disparities in Cancer. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 222. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, or Pacific Islanders and Tobacco Use. [updated December 3, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 223. Stram DO, Park SL, Haiman CA, Murphy SE, Patel Y, Hecht SS, et al. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Lung Cancer Incidence in the Multiethnic Cohort Study: An Update. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2019;111:811-9.

Ref. 224. Ho JTK, Tyndale RF, Baker TB, Amos CI, Chiu A, Smock N, et al. Racial Disparities in Intensity of Smoke Exposure and Nicotine Intake among Low-Dependence Smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2021;221:108641.

Ref. 225. Giovino GA, Schooley MW, Zhu BP, Chrismon JH, Tomar SL, Peddicord JP, et al. Surveillance for Selected Tobacco-Use Behaviors–United States, 1900-1994. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 1994;43:1-43.

Ref. 226. Department of Health and Human Services. What You Need to Know About Quitting Smoking: Advice from the Surgeon General. [updated December 10, 2020, cited 2022 April 29]. Available from:­cessation-sgr-consumer-guide.pdf

Ref. 227. Carroll DM, Cole A. Racial/Ethnic Group Comparisons of Quit Ratios and Prevalences of Cessation-Related Factors among Adults Who Smoke with a Quit Attempt. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2022;48:58-68.

Ref. 228. Ramsey AT, Baker TB, Pham G, Stoneking F, Smock N, Colditz GA, et al. Low Burden Strategies Are Needed to Reduce Smoking in Rural Healthcare Settings: A Lesson from Cancer Clinics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020;17:1728.

Ref. 229. Li L, Zhan S, Hu L, Wilson KM, Mazumdar M, Liu B. Examining the Role of Healthcare Access in Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Receipt of Provider-Patient Discussions About Smoking: A Latent Class Analysis. Prev Med 2021;148:106584.

Ref. 230. Villanti AC, Collins LK, Niaura RS, Gagosian SY, Abrams DB. Menthol Cigarettes and the Public Health Standard: A Systematic Review. BMC Public Health 2017;17:983.

Ref. 231. Ehlke SJ, Ganz O, Kendzor DE, Cohn AM. Differences between Adult Sexual Minority Females and Heterosexual Females on Menthol Smoking and Other Smoking Behaviors: Findings from Wave 4 (2016–2018) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Addictive Behaviors 2022;129:107265.

Ref. 232. Usidame B, Hirschtick J, Zavala-Arciniega L, Mattingly DT, Patel A, Meza R, et al. Exclusive and Dual Menthol/Non-Menthol Cigarette Use with Ends among Adults, 2013–2019. Preventive Medicine Reports 2021;24:101566.

Ref. 233. Cook S, Hirschtick JL, Patel A, Brouwer A, Jeon J, Levy DT, et al. A Longitudinal Study of Menthol Cigarette Use and Smoking Cessation among Adult Smokers in the US: Assessing the Roles of Racial Disparities and E-Cigarette Use. Prev Med 2022;154:106882.

Ref. 234. Smiley SL, Cho J, Blackman KCA, Cruz TB, Pentz MA, Samet JM, et al. Retail Marketing of Menthol Cigarettes in Los Angeles, California: A Challenge to Health Equity. Prev Chronic Dis 2021;18:E11.

Ref. 235. Asare S, Majmundar A, Westmaas JL, Bandi P, Xue Z, Jemal A, et al. Association of Cigarette Sales with Comprehensive Menthol Flavor Ban in Massachusetts. JAMA Internal Medicine 2022;182:231-4.

Ref. 236. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Fda Commits to Evidence-Based Actions Aimed at Saving Lives and Preventing Future Generations of Smokers. [updated April 29, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­announcements/fda-commits-evidence-based-actions-aimed­saving-lives-and-preventing-future-generations-smokers

Ref. 237. Mills SD, Kong AY, Reimold AE, Baggett CD, Wiesen CA, Golden SD. Sociodemographic Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density in the United States, 2000–2017. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2022

Ref. 238. Parks MJ, Patrick ME, Levy DT, Thrasher JF, Elliott MR, Fleischer NL. Cigarette Pack Price and Its within-Person Association with Smoking Initiation, Smoking Progression, and Disparities among Young Adults. Nicotine Tob Res 2022;24:519-28.

Ref. 239. Parks MJ, Patrick ME, Levy DT, Thrasher JF, Elliott MR, Fleischer NL. Tobacco Taxation and Its Prospective Impact on Disparities in Smoking Initiation and Progression among Young Adults. J Adolesc Health 2021;68:765-72.

Ref. 240. National Cancer Institute. Navajo Nation Enacts Commercial Tobacco Ban. [updated February 7, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­ban?cid=eb_govdel_cancerinfo

Ref. 241. Christensen CH, Rostron B, Cosgrove C, Altekruse SF, Hartman AM, Gibson JT, et al. Association of Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Use with Mortality Risk in the US Population. JAMA Internal Medicine 2018;178:469-76.

Ref. 242. National Academies of Sciences E, Medicine, Health, Medicine D, Board on Population H, Public Health P, et al. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes. In: Eaton DL, Kwan LY, Stratton K, editors. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US);2018.

Ref. 243. Tommasi S, Pabustan N, Li M, Chen Y, Siegmund KD, Besaratinia A. A Novel Role for Vaping in Mitochondrial Gene Dysregulation and Inflammation Fundamental to Disease Development. Scientific reports 2021;11:22773.

Ref. 244. Chen-Sankey JC, Mead-Morse EL, Le D, Rose SW, Quisenberry AJ, Delnevo CD, et al. Cigar-Smoking Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Cigar Type: A Nationally Representative Survey among U.S. Adults. Am J Prev Med 2021;60:87-94.

Ref. 245. Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Sanderson Cox L, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Ellerbeck EF, et al. Factors That Explain Differences in Abstinence between Black and White Smokers: A Prospective Intervention Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2019;111:1078-87.

Ref. 246. Asfar T, Koru-Sengul T, Antoni MA, Dorsey A, Ruano Herreria EC, Lee DJ, et al. Recruiting Racially and Ethnically Diverse Smokers Seeking Treatment: Lessons Learned from a Smoking Cessation Randomized Clinical Trial. Addict Behav 2022;124:107112.

Ref. 247. Yzer M, Rhodes K, Nagler RH, Joseph A. Effects of Culturally Tailored Smoking Prevention and Cessation Messages on Urban American Indian Youth. Prev Med Rep 2021;24:101540.

Ref. 248. Simmons VN, Sutton SK, Medina-Ramirez P, Martinez U, Brandon KO, Byrne MM, et al. Self-Help Smoking Cessation Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Hispanics/Latinxs in the United States: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Cancer 2022;128:984-94.

Ref. 249. The Cancer Center Cessation Initiative Diversity E, and Inclusion Working Group Members. Integrating Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Approaches into Treatment of Commercial Tobacco Use for Optimal Cancer Care Delivery. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021;19:s4-s7.

Ref. 250. Group TCCCITW. Telehealth Delivery of Tobacco Cessation Treatment in Cancer Care: An Ongoing Innovation Accelerated by the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021;19:s21-s4.

References 251-300

Ref. 251. Bell CN, Kerr J, Young JL. Associations between Obesity, Obesogenic Environments, and Structural Racism Vary by County-Level Racial Composition. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019;16:861.

Ref. 252. Mackey ER, Burton ET, Cadieux A, Getzoff E, Santos M, Ward W, et al. Addressing Structural Racism Is Critical for Ameliorating the Childhood Obesity Epidemic in Black Youth. Child Obes 2022;18:75-83.

Ref. 253. World Cancer Research Fund International. Eat Wholegrains, Vegetables, Fruit and Beans. [updated April 20, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­prevention-recommendations/eat-wholegrains-vegetables-fruit­and-beans/

Ref. 254. Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, Ghissassi FE, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, et al. Carcinogenicity of Consumption of Red and Processed Meat. Lancet Oncol 2015;16:1599-600.

Ref. 255. Farvid MS, Stern MC, Norat T, Sasazuki S, Vineis P, Weijenberg MP, et al. Consumption of Red and Processed Meat and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. International journal of cancer 2018;143:2787-99.

Ref. 256. Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Galuska DA, et al. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. JAMA 2018;320:2020-8.

Ref. 257. Matthews CE, Moore SC, Arem H, Cook MB, Trabert B, Håkansson N, et al. Amount and Intensity of Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Lower Cancer Risk. J Clin Oncol 2020;38:686-97.

Ref. 258. Patel AV, Friedenreich CM, Moore SC, Hayes SC, Silver JK, Campbell KL, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable Report on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Cancer Prevention and Control. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2019;51:2391-402.

Ref. 259. Moore SC, Lee IM, Weiderpass E, Campbell PT, Sampson JN, Kitahara CM, et al. Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity with Risk of 26 Types of Cancer in 1.44 Million Adults. JAMA Intern Med 2016;176:816-25.

Ref. 260. World Cancer Research Fund International. Diet, Activity and Cancer. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 261. Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, Grosse Y, Bianchini F, Straif K. Body Fatness and Cancer–Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. N Engl J Med 2016;375:794-8.

Ref. 262. Rathmell JC. Obesity, Immunity, and Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2021;384:1160-2.

Ref. 263. Foley JF. Obesity and Antitumor Immunity. Science Signaling 2022;15:eabq0080.

Ref. 264. Brown JC, Yang S, Mire EF, Wu X, Miele L, Ochoa A, et al. Obesity and Cancer Death in White and Black Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study. Obesity 2021;29:2119-25.

Ref. 265. Ballinger TJ, Jiang G, Shen F, Miller KD, Sledge GW, Jr., Schneider BP. Impact of African Ancestry on the Relationship between Body Mass Index and Survival in an Early-Stage Breast Cancer Trial. Cancer 2022;128:2174-2181.

Ref. 266. Guha A, Wang X, Harris RA, Nelson AG, Stepp D, Klaassen Z, et al. Obesity and the Bidirectional Risk of Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases in African Americans: Disparity Vs. Ancestry. Front Cardiovasc Med 2021;8:761488.

Ref. 267. Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity among Adults: United States, 2017­2018. NCHS Data Brief 2020:1-8.

Ref. 268. State of Childhood Obesity. Obesity Rates for Youth Ages 10 to 17. [updated March 3, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 269. City of Philadelphia Department of Public Health. Neighborhood Food Retail in Philadelphia. [updated September 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 270. Bandi P, Minihan AK, Siegel RL, Islami F, Nargis N, Jemal A, et al. Updated Review of Major Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Test Use in the United States in 2018 and 2019, with a Focus on Smoking Cessation. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2021;30:1287-99.

Ref. 271. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult Physical Inactivity Prevalence Maps by Race/Ethnicity | Physical Activity | Cdc. [updated February 17, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­prevalence-maps/

Ref. 272. Trust for America’s Health. The State of Obesity 2020: Better Policies for a Healthier America. [updated May 5, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 273. Ogden CL, Fryar CD, Martin CB, Freedman DS, Carroll MD, Gu Q, et al. Trends in Obesity Prevalence by Race and Hispanic Origin-1999-2000 to 2017-2018. Jama 2020;324:1208-10.

Ref. 274. Trust for America’s Health. State of Obesity 2021: Better Policies for a Healthier America. [updated November 5, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 275. Niu L, Hoyt LT, Pickering S, Nucci-Sack A, Salandy A, Shankar V, et al. Neighborhood Profiles and Body Mass Index Trajectory in Female Adolescents and Young Adults. Journal of Adolescent Health 2021;69:1024-31.

Ref. 276. Zhang D, Bauer C, Powell-Wiley T, Xiao Q. Association of Long-Term Trajectories of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status with Weight Change in Older Adults. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2036809.

Ref. 277. Okobi OE, Ajayi OO, Okobi TJ, Anaya IC, Fasehun OO, Diala CS, et al. The Burden of Obesity in the Rural Adult Population of America. Cureus 2021;13:e15770.

Ref. 278. Tao W, Santoni G, von Euler-Chelpin M, Ljung R, Lynge E, Pukkala E, et al. Cancer Risk after Bariatric Surgery in a Cohort Study from the Five Nordic Countries. Obes Surg 2020;30:3761-7.

Ref. 279. Schauer DP, Feigelson HS, Koebnick C, Caan B, Weinmann S, Leonard AC, et al. Bariatric Surgery and the Risk of Cancer in a Large Multisite Cohort. Ann Surg 2019;269:95-101.

Ref. 280. docwirenews. Weight Loss Surgery Cuts Risk of Pancreatic Cancer for Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. [updated October 14, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­cuts-risk-of-pancreatic-cancer-for-obese-patients-with-type-2­diabetes/

Ref. 281. Katzmarzyk PT, Martin CK, Newton RL, Apolzan JW, Arnold CL, Davis TC, et al. Weight Loss in Underserved Patients—a Cluster-Randomized Trial. New England Journal of Medicine 2020;383:909-18.

Ref. 282. Leng J, Lui F, Narang B, Puebla L, González J, Lynch K, et al. Developing a Culturally Responsive Lifestyle Intervention for Overweight/Obese U.S. Mexicans. J Community Health 2022;47:28-38.

Ref. 283. You W, Yuan Y, Boyle KJ, Michaud TL, Parmeter C, Seidel RW, et al. Examining Ways to Improve Weight Control Programs’ Population Reach and Representativeness: A Discrete Choice Experiment of Financial Incentives. Pharmacoecon Open 2022;6:193-210.

Ref. 284. Alberga AS, Edache IY, Forhan M, Russell-Mayhew S. Weight Bias and Health Care Utilization: A Scoping Review. Prim Health Care Res Dev 2019;20:e116.

Ref. 285. Tomiyama AJ, Carr D, Granberg EM, Major B, Robinson E, Sutin AR, et al. How and Why Weight Stigma Drives the Obesity ‘Epidemic’ and Harms Health. BMC Medicine 2018;16:123.

Ref. 286. Prunty A, Clark MK, Hahn A, Edmonds S, O’Shea A. Enacted Weight Stigma and Weight Self Stigma Prevalence among 3821 Adults. Obes Res Clin Pract 2020;14:421-7.

Ref. 287. Koyratty N, McCann SE, Millen AE, Nie J, Trevisan M, Freudenheim JL. Sugar-Sweetened Soda Consumption and Total and Breast Cancer Mortality: The Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (Web) Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021;30:945-52.

Ref. 288. Hur J, Otegbeye E, Joh HK, Nimptsch K, Ng K, Ogino S, et al. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Adulthood and Adolescence and Risk of Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer among Women. Gut 2021;70:2330-6.

Ref. 289. Chazelas E, Srour B, Desmetz E, Kesse-Guyot E, Julia C, Deschamps V, et al. Sugary Drink Consumption and Risk of Cancer: Results from Nutrinet-Santé Prospective Cohort. BMJ 2019;366:l2408.

Ref. 290. Rosinger A, Herrick K, Gahche J, Park S. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief 2017:1-8.

Ref. 291. Rosinger A, Herrick K, Gahche J, Park S. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among U.S. Adults, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief 2017:1-8.

Ref. 292. Joh HK, Lee DH, Hur J, Nimptsch K, Chang Y, Joung H, et al. Simple Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake During Adolescence and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Precursors. Gastroenterology 2021;161:128-42.e20.

Ref. 293. Jiang N, Yi SS, Russo R, Bu DD, Zhang D, Ferket B, et al. Trends and Sociodemographic Disparities in Sugary Drink Consumption among Adults in New York City, 2009–2017. Preventive Medicine Reports 2020;19:101162.

Ref. 294. Vercammen KA, Moran AJ, Soto MJ, Kennedy-Shaffer L, Bleich SN. Decreasing Trends in Heavy Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in the United States, 2003 to 2016. J Acad Nutr Diet 2020;120:1974-85.e5.

Ref. 295. Health Food America. Sugary Drinks in America: Who’s Drinking What and How Much? [updated June 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 296. Mendez MA, Miles DR, Poti JM, Sotres-Alvarez D, Popkin BM. Persistent Disparities over Time in the Distribution of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake among Children in the United States. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2018;109:79-89.

Ref. 297. Du M, Griecci CF, Kim DD, Cudhea F, Ruan M, Eom H, et al. Cost-Effectiveness of a National Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax to Reduce Cancer burdens and Disparities in the United States. JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020;4:pkaa073.

Ref. 298. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. [updated December 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 299. Wang L, Du M, Cudhea F, Griecci C, Michaud DS, Mozaffarian D, et al. Disparities in Health and Economic Burdens of Cancer Attributable to Suboptimal Diet in the United States, 2015-2018. Am J Public Health 2021;111:2008-18.

Ref. 300. Zhang FF, Cudhea F, Shan Z, Michaud DS, Imamura F, Eom H, et al. Preventable Cancer Burden Associated with Poor Diet in the United States. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 2019;3.

References 301-350

Ref. 301. Wang DD, Li Y, Bhupathiraju SN, Rosner BA, Sun Q, Giovannucci EL, et al. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Mortality. Circulation 2021;143:1642-54.

Ref. 302. Veettil SK, Wong TY, Loo YS, Playdon MC, Lai NM, Giovannucci EL, et al. Role of Diet in Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses of Prospective Observational Studies. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2037341.

Ref. 303. Gurjao C, Zhong R, Haruki K, Li YY, Spurr LF, Lee-Six H, et al. Discovery and Features of an Alkylating Signature in Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Discov 2021;11:2446-55.

Ref. 304. Lee SH, Moore LV, Park S, Harris DM, Blanck HM. Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations – United States, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:1-9.

Ref. 305. Wang L, Martínez Steele E, Du M, Pomeranz JL, O’Connor LE, Herrick KA, et al. Trends in Consumption of Ultraprocessed Foods among US Youths Aged 2-19 Years, 1999-2018. JAMA 2021;326:519-30.

Ref. 306. Patetta MA, Pedraza LS, Popkin BM. Improvements in the Nutritional Quality of US Young Adults Based on Food Sources and Socioeconomic Status between 1989–1991 and 2011–2014. Nutrition Journal 2019;18:32.

Ref. 307. Daepp MIG, Gortmaker SL, Wang YC, Long MW, Kenney EL. Wic Food Package Changes: Trends in Childhood Obesity Prevalence. Pediatrics 2019;143:e20182841.

Ref. 308. Pan L, Blanck HM, Park S, Galuska DA, Freedman DS, Potter A, et al. State-Specific Prevalence of Obesity among Children Aged 2-4 Years Enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children – United States, 2010-2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:1057-61.

Ref. 309. Pelto DJ, Ocampo A, Garduño-Ortega O, Barraza López CT, Macaluso F, Ramirez J, et al. The Nutrition Benefits Participation Gap: Barriers to Uptake of Snap and Wic among Latinx American Immigrant Families. J Community Health 2020;45:488-91.

Ref. 310. Myers CA, Mire EF, Katzmarzyk PT. Trends in Adiposity and Food Insecurity among US Adults. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e2012767.

Ref. 311. Bower KM, Thorpe RJ, Jr., Rohde C, Gaskin DJ. The Intersection of Neighborhood Racial Segregation, Poverty, and Urbanicity and Its Impact on Food Store Availability in the United States. Prev Med 2014;58:33-9.

Ref. 312. Ojinnaka CO, Christ J, Bruening M. Is There a Relationship between County-Level Food Insecurity Rates and Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis? Nutr Cancer 2021:1-8.

Ref. 313. Odoms-Young A, Bruce MA. Examining the Impact of Structural Racism on Food Insecurity: Implications for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities. Fam Community Health 2018;41 Suppl 2 Suppl, Food Insecurity and Obesity:s3-s6.

Ref. 314. Althoff T, Nilforoshan H, Hua J, Leskovec J. Large-Scale Diet Tracking Data Reveal Disparate Associations between Food Environment and Diet. Nature communications 2022;13:267.

Ref. 315. 315.Papadimitriou N, Markozannes G, Kanellopoulou A, Critselis E, Alhardan S, Karafousia V, et al. An Umbrella Review of the Evidence Associating Diet and Cancer Risk at 11 Anatomical Sites. Nature communications 2021;12:4579.

Ref. 316. Hydes TJ, Burton R, Inskip H, Bellis MA, Sheron N. A Comparison of Gender-Linked Population Cancer Risks between Alcohol and Tobacco: How Many Cigarettes Are There in a Bottle of Wine? BMC Public Health 2019;19:316.

Ref. 317. LoConte NK, Brewster AM, Kaur JS, Merrill JK, Alberg AJ. Alcohol and Cancer: A Statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:83-93.

Ref. 318. White AJ, DeRoo LA, Weinberg CR, Sandler DP. Lifetime Alcohol Intake, Binge Drinking Behaviors, and Breast Cancer Risk. Am J Epidemiol 2017;186:541-9.

Ref. 319. Xi B, Veeranki SP, Zhao M, Ma C, Yan Y, Mi J. Relationship of Alcohol Consumption to All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer-Related Mortality in U.S. Adults. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017;70:913-22.

Ref. 320. Goding Sauer A, Fedewa SA, Bandi P, Minihan AK, Stoklosa M, Drope J, et al. Proportion of Cancer Cases and Deaths Attributable to Alcohol Consumption by US State, 2013-2016. Cancer Epidemiol 2021;71:101893.

Ref. 321. McKnight-Eily LR, Okoro CA, Turay K, Acero C, Hungerford D. Screening for Alcohol Use and Brief Counseling of Adults – 13 States and the District of Columbia, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:265-70.

Ref. 322. White AM, Castle IP, Hingson RW, Powell PA. Using Death Certificates to Explore Changes in Alcohol-Related Mortality in the United States, 1999 to 2017. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020;44:178-87.

Ref. 323. Buckner JD, Glover NI, Shepherd JM, Zvolensky MJ. Racial Discrimination and Hazardous Drinking among Black Drinkers: The Role of Social Anxiety in the Minority Stress Model. Subst Use Misuse 2022;57:256-62.

Ref. 324. Shams-White MM, D’Angelo H, Perez LG, Dwyer LA, Stinchcomb DG, Oh AY. A National Examination of Neighborhood Socio-Economic Disparities in Built Environment Correlates of Youth Physical Activity. Prev Med Rep 2021;22:101358.

Ref. 325. Heredia NI, Fernandez ME, Durand CP, Kohl Iii HW, Ranjit N, van den Berg AE. Factors Associated with Use of Recreational Facilities and Physical Activity among Low-Income Latino Adults. J Immigr Minor Health 2020;22:555-62.

Ref. 326. Rock CL, Thomson CA, Sullivan KR, Howe CL, Kushi LH, Caan BJ, et al. American Cancer Society Nutrition and Physical Activity Guideline for Cancer Survivors. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians;72:230-262.

Ref. 327. 327.Levy DT, Meza R, Yuan Z, Li Y, Cadham C, Sanchez-Romero LM, et al. Public Health Impact of a US Ban on Menthol in Cigarettes and Cigars: A Simulation Study. Tobacco Control 2021:tobaccocontrol-2021-056604.

Ref. 328. Thirumalai M, Brown N, Niranjan S, Townsend SN, Powell MA, Neal W, et al. An Interactive Voice Response System to Increase Physical Activity and Prevent Cancer in the Rural Alabama Black Belt: Design and Usability Study. JMIR Hum Factors 2022;9:e29494.

Ref. 329. Heredia NI, Lee M, Reininger BM. Hispanic Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Profiles: Examining Existing Data to Drive Prospective Research. J Public Health (Oxf) 2020;42:e120-e5.

Ref. 330. Hornbuckle LM, Rauer A, Winters-Stone KM, Springer C, Jones CS, Toth LP. Better Together? A Pilot Study of Romantic Partner Influence on Exercise Adherence and Cardiometabolic Risk in African-American Couples. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021;8:1492-504.

Ref. 331. Cheng CE, Irwin B, Mauriello D, Hemminger L, Pappert A, Kimball AB. Health Disparities among Different Ethnic and Racial Middle and High School Students in Sun Exposure Beliefs and Knowledge. J Adolesc Health 2010;47:106-9.

Ref. 332. Summers P, Bena J, Arrigain S, Alexis AF, Cooper K, Bordeaux JS. Sunscreen Use: Non-Hispanic Blacks Compared with Other Racial and/or Ethnic Groups. Arch Dermatol 2011;147:863-4.

Ref. 333. Maarouf M, Zullo SW, DeCapite T, Shi VY. Skin Cancer Epidemiology and Sun Protection Behaviors among Native Americans. J Drugs Dermatol 2019;18:420-3.

Ref. 334. Correnti CM, Klein DJ, Elliott MN, Veledar E, Saraiya M, Chien AT, et al. Racial Disparities in Fifth-Grade Sun Protection: Evidence from the Healthy Passages Study. Pediatric Dermatology 2018;35:588-96.

Ref. 335. Dennis LK, Vanbeek MJ, Beane Freeman LE, Smith BJ, Dawson DV, Coughlin JA. Sunburns and Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma: Does Age Matter? A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Ann Epidemiol 2008;18:614-27.

Ref. 336. Miller KA, Huh J, Piombo SE, Richardson JL, Harris SC, Peng DH, et al. Sun Protection Changes among Diverse Elementary Schoolchildren Participating in a Sun Safety Intervention: A Latent Transition Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Preventive Medicine 2021;149:106601.

Ref. 337. Buster KJ, You Z, Fouad M, Elmets C. Skin Cancer Risk Perceptions: A Comparison across Ethnicity, Age, Education, Gender, and Income. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;66:771-9.

Ref. 338. Culp MB, Lunsford NB. Melanoma among Non-Hispanic Black Americans. Prev Chronic Dis 2019;16:E79.

Ref. 339. Perez MI. Skin Cancer in Hispanics in the United States. J Drugs Dermatol 2019;18:s117-20.

Ref. 340. Davis DS, Robinson C, Callender VD. Skin Cancer in Women of Color: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations. International Journal of Women’s Dermatology 2021;7:127-34.

Ref. 341. Lopes FCPS, Sleiman MG, Sebastian K, Bogucka R, Jacobs EA, Adamson AS. Uv Exposure and the Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma in Skin of Color: A Systematic Review. JAMA Dermatology 2021;157:213-9.

Ref. 342. Mansh M, Arron ST. Indoor Tanning and Melanoma: Are Gay and Bisexual Men More at Risk? Melanoma Manag 2016;3:89-92.

Ref. 343. Stapleton JL, Hrywna M, Coups EJ, Delnevo C, Heckman CJ, Xu B. Prevalence and Location of Indoor Tanning among High School Students in New Jersey 5 Years after the Enactment of Youth Access Restrictions. JAMA Dermatol 2020;156:1223-7.

Ref. 344. Eskander A, Marqueen KE, Edwards HA, Joshua AM, Petrella TM, de Almeida JR, et al. To Ban or Not to Ban Tanning Bed Use for Minors: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis from Multiple Us Perspectives for Invasive Melanoma. Cancer 2021;127:2333-41.

Ref. 345. de Martel C, Georges D, Bray F, Ferlay J, Clifford GM. Global Burden of Cancer Attributable to Infections in 2018: A Worldwide Incidence Analysis. Lancet Glob Health 2020;8:e180-e90.

Ref. 346. Hong CY, Sinn DH, Kang D, Paik SW, Guallar E, Cho J, et al. Incidence of Extrahepatic Cancers among Individuals with Chronic Hepatitis B or C Virus Infection: A Nationwide Cohort Study. J Viral Hepat 2020;27:896-903.

Ref. 347. Luo G, Zhang Y, Guo P, Wang L, Huang Y, Li K. Global Patterns and Trends in Stomach Cancer Incidence: Age, Period and Birth Cohort Analysis. International journal of cancer 2017;141:1333-44.

Ref. 348. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019 Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Report. [updated May 19, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 349. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Universal Hepatitis B Vaccination in Adults Aged 19–59 Years: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices—United States, 2022. [updated April 15, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 350. Ye Q, Kam LY, Yeo YH, Dang N, Huang DQ, Cheung R, et al. Substantial Gaps in Evaluation and Treatment of Patients with Hepatitis B in the US. Journal of Hepatology 2022;76:63-74.

References 351-400

Ref. 351. Jones P, Soler J, Solle NS, Martin P, Kobetz E. A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Perceptions of Hepatitis B and Hepatocellular Carcinoma among Ethnically Diverse Black Communities in South Florida. Cancer Causes Control 2020;31:1079-91.

Ref. 352. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatits Surveillance United States, 2016. [updated January 1, 2016, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 353. Indian Health Service. Hepatitis C: Universal Screening and Treatment. [updated May 16, 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­screening-and-treatment-19-02/

Ref. 354. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Viral Hepatitis National Strategic Plan for the United States: A Roadmap to Elimination (2021-2025). [updated January 4, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 355. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cancers Associated with Human Papillomavirus (Hpv). [updated December 13, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 356. Clarke MA, Risley C, Stewart MW, Geisinger KR, Hiser LM, Morgan JC, et al. Age-Specific Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Abnormal Cytology at Baseline in a Diverse Statewide Prospective Cohort of Individuals Undergoing Cervical Cancer Screening in Mississippi. Cancer Medicine 2021;10:8641-50.

Ref. 357. Berenson AB, Hirth JM, Chang M. Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus by Age and Race/Ethnicity among Males. Clin Infect Dis 2021;73:1625-33.

Ref. 358. Rosenblum HG, Lewis RM, Gargano JW, Querec TD, Unger ER, Markowitz LE. Declines in Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine-Type Infection among Females after Introduction of Vaccine – United States, 2003-2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:415-20.

Ref. 359. Lei J, Ploner A, Elfström KM, Wang J, Roth A, Fang F, et al. Hpv Vaccination and the Risk of Invasive Cervical Cancer. N Engl J Med 2020;383:1340-8.

Ref. 360. Mix JM, Van Dyne EA, Saraiya M, Hallowell BD, Thomas CC. Assessing Impact of Hpv Vaccination on Cervical Cancer Incidence among Women Aged 15-29 Years in the United States, 1999-2017: An Ecologic Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021;30:30-7.

Ref. 361. Van Dyne EA, Henley SJ, Saraiya M, Thomas CC, Markowitz LE, Benard VB. Trends in Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancers – United States, 1999-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:918-24.

Ref. 362. Deshmukh AA, Suk R, Shiels MS, Sonawane K, Nyitray AG, Liu Y, et al. Recent Trends in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus Incidence and Mortality in the United States, 2001-2015. J Natl Cancer Inst 2020;112:829-38.

Ref. 363. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Gay and Bisexual Men. [updated March 9, 2016, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 364. American Association for Cancer Research. AACR Cancer Progress Report 2020. [updated September 16, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 365. Pingali C, Yankey D, Elam-Evans LD, Markowitz LE, Williams CL, Fredua B, et al. National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years – United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1183-90.

Ref. 366. McElfish PA, Narcisse M-R, Felix HC, Cascante DC, Nagarsheth N, Teeter B, et al. Race, Nativity, and Sex Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adults in the USA. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 2021;8:1260-6.

Ref. 367. Mansfield LN, Silva SG, Merwin EI, Chung RJ, Gonzalez-Guarda RM. Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Series Completion among Adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2021;61:701-8.

Ref. 368. Gopalani SV, Sedani AE, Janitz AE, Clifton SC, Peck JD, Comiford A, et al. Barriers and Factors Associated with HPV Vaccination among American Indians and Alaska Natives: A Systematic Review. J Community Health 2022.

Ref. 369. Adjei Boakye E, Stierwalt T, Grundy S, Osazuwa-Peters N, Lee M, Elgee M, et al. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Uptake among Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adults in the United States. Ann Epidemiol 2022;66:52-5.

Ref. 370. Amboree TL, Darkoh C. Barriers to Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake among Racial/Ethnic Minorities: A Systematic Review. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021;8:1192-207.

Ref. 371. Melkonian SC, Henley SJ, Senkomago V, Thomas CC, Jim MA, Apostolou A, et al. Cancers Associated with Human Papillomavirus in American Indian and Alaska Native Populations – United States, 2013-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:1283-7.

Ref. 372. Rani U, Darabaner E, Seserman M, Bednarczyk RA, Shaw J. Public Education Interventions and Uptake of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A Systematic Review. J Public Health Manag Pract 2022;28:E307-e15.

Ref. 373. Lott BE, Okusanya BO, Anderson EJ, Kram NA, Rodriguez M, Thomson CA, et al. Interventions to Increase Uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination in Minority Populations: A Systematic Review. Prev Med Rep 2020;19:101163.

Ref. 374. Spencer JC, Brewer NT, Coyne-Beasley T, Trogdon JG, Weinberger M, Wheeler SB. Reducing Poverty-Related Disparities in Cervical Cancer: The Role of HPV Vaccination. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021;30:1895-903.

Ref. 375. Hawkins SS, Horvath K, Cohen J, Pace LE, Baum CF. Associations between Insurance-Related Affordable Care Act Policy Changes with HPV Vaccine Completion. BMC Public Health 2021;21:304.

Ref. 376. Healthy People. Healthy People 2020: An Opportunity to Address Societal Determinants of Health in the U.S. [updated July 26, 2010, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 377. Madhav KC, Oral E, Rung AL, Trapido EJ, Rozek LS, Fontham ETH, et al. Neighborhood Deprivation and Risk of Mortality among Men with Prostate Cancer: Findings from a Long-Term Follow-up Study. Prostate 2022;82:783-792.

Ref. 378. Sadigh G, Gray RJ, Sparano JA, Yanez B, Garcia SF, Timsina LR, et al. Assessment of Racial Disparity in Survival Outcomes for Early Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer after Adjusting for Insurance Status and Neighborhood Deprivation: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol 2022;8:579-586.

Ref. 379. Sangaramoorthy M, Yang J, Guan A, DeRouen MC, Tana MM, Somsouk M, et al. Asian American/Pacific Islander and Hispanic Ethnic Enclaves, Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence in California: An Update. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2022;31:382-92.

Ref. 380. Adel Fahmideh M, Schraw JM, Chintagumpala M, Lupo PJ, Oluyomi AO, Scheurer ME. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Mortality in Children with Central Nervous System Tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021;30:2278-85.

Ref. 381. Castañeda-Avila MA, Jesdale BM, Beccia A, Bey GS, Epstein MM. Differences in Survival among Multiple Myeloma Patients in the United States Seer Population by Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Race/Ethnicity. Cancer Causes Control 2021;32:1021-8.

Ref. 382. American Cancer Society. Cancer Prevention & Early Detection Facts & Figures 2019-2020. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­prevention-and-early-detection-facts-and-figures/cancer­prevention-and-early-detection-facts-and-figures-2019-2020.pdf

Ref. 383. North Carolina Health News. N.C. Gives Away Radon Test Kits. [updated January 20, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­away-radon-test-kits/

Ref. 384. North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Brfss) Data Radon Questions and Responses. [updated June 2017, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­BRFSS-RadonDataFinal-v2.pdf

Ref. 385. American Lung Association. What’s the State of Your Air? [cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 386. Lewis J, Hoover J, MacKenzie D. Mining and Environmental Health Disparities in Native American Communities. Current Environmental Health Reports 2017;4:130-41.

Ref. 387. Hoover J, Gonzales M, Shuey C, Barney Y, Lewis J. Elevated Arsenic and Uranium Concentrations in Unregulated Water Sources on the Navajo Nation, USA. Exposure and Health 2017;9:113-24.

Ref. 388. Blake JM, Avasarala S, Artyushkova K, Ali A-MS, Brearley AJ, Shuey C, et al. Elevated Concentrations of U and Co-Occurring Metals in Abandoned Mine Wastes in a Northeastern Arizona Native American Community. Environmental Science & Technology 2015;49:8506-14.

Ref. 389. Loomis D, Grosse Y, Lauby-Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, et al. The Carcinogenicity of Outdoor Air Pollution. Lancet Oncol 2013;14:1262-3.

Ref. 390. Liu J, Clark LP, Bechle MJ, Hajat A, Kim S-Y, Robinson AL, et al. Disparities in Air Pollution Exposure in the United States by Race/Ethnicity and Income, 1990–2010. Environmental Health Perspectives 2021;129:127005.

Ref. 391. Lane HM, Morello-Frosch R, Marshall JD, Apte JS. Historical Redlining Is Associated with Present-Day Air Pollution Disparities in U.S. Cities. Environmental Science & Technology Letters 2022;9(4):345-350.

Ref. 392. Propublica. How We Created the Most Detailed Map Ever of Cancer-Causing Industrial Air Pollution. [updated November 2, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­most-detailed-map-ever-of-cancer-causing-industrial-air­pollution?token=PrSqc58cn7gW-eRA_isLN03ygBJN8E84

Ref. 393. Caraballo C, Mahajan S, Valero-Elizondo J, Massey D, Lu Y, Roy B, et al. Evaluation of Temporal Trends in Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Duration among US Adults, 2004-2018. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5:e226385.

Ref. 394. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Toxicology Program: 15th Report on Carcinogens. [updated January 25, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 395. National Cancer Institute. Cancer-Causing Substances in the Environment. [updated December 28, 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­prevention/risk/substances

Ref. 396. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Bourguignon J-P, Giudice LC, Hauser R, Prins GS, Soto AM, et al. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. Endocrine Reviews 2009;30:293-342.

Ref. 397. Attina TM, Malits J, Naidu M, Trasande L. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Disease Burden and Costs Related to Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the United States: An Exploratory Analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 2019;108:34-43.

Ref. 398. Adamkiewicz G, Zota AR, Fabian MP, Chahine T, Julien R, Spengler JD, et al. Moving Environmental Justice Indoors: Understanding Structural Influences on Residential Exposure Patterns in Low-Income Communities. American Journal of Public Health 2011;101:S238-S45.

Ref. 399. Juon HS, Hong A, Pimpinelli M, Rojulpote M, McIntire R, Barta JA. Racial Disparities in Occupational Risks and Lung Cancer Incidence: Analysis of the National Lung Screening Trial. Prev Med 2021;143:106355.

Ref. 400. Edwards L, McCray NL, VanNoy BN, Yau A, Geller RJ, Adamkiewicz G, et al. Phthalate and Novel Plasticizer Concentrations in Food Items from U.S. Fast Food Chains: A Preliminary Analysis. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2021;32(3):366-373.

References 401-450

Ref. 401. Zota AR, Phillips CA, Mitro SD. Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol a and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in Nhanes, 2003–2010. Environmental Health Perspectives 2016;124:1521-8.

Ref. 402. Wesselink AK, Fruh V, Hauser R, Weuve J, Taylor KW, Orta OR, et al. Correlates of Urinary Concentrations of Phthalate and Phthalate Alternative Metabolites among Reproductive-Aged Black Women from Detroit, Michigan. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2021;31:461-75.

Ref. 403. Llanos AA, Rabkin A, Bandera EV, Zirpoli G, Gonzalez BD, Xing CY, et al. Hair Product Use and Breast Cancer Risk among African American and White Women. Carcinogenesis 2017;38:883-92.

Ref. 404. Propublica. Welcome to “Cancer Alley,” Where Toxic Air Is About to Get Worse. [cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­is-about-to-get-worse?token=XHXNgmPVImDaW15WrSaCeUz9xwCZGa7E

Ref. 405. Chida Y, Hamer M, Wardle J, Steptoe A. Do Stress-Related Psychosocial Factors Contribute to Cancer Incidence and Survival? Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2008;5:466-75.

Ref. 406. Roberts AL, Huang T, Koenen KC, Kim Y, Kubzansky LD, Tworoger SS. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is Associated with Increased Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Prospective and Retrospective Longitudinal Cohort Study. Cancer Res 2019;79:5113-20.

Ref. 407. Moreno-Smith M, Lutgendorf SK, Sood AK. Impact of Stress on Cancer Metastasis. Future Oncol 2010;6:1863-81.

Ref. 408. Song H, Saito E, Sawada N, Abe SK, Hidaka A, Shimazu T, et al. Perceived Stress Level and Risk of Cancer Incidence in a Japanese Population: The Japan Public Health Center (JPHC)-Based Prospective Study. Scientific reports 2017;7:12964.

Ref. 409. Mohammadpour H, MacDonald CR, McCarthy PL, Abrams SI, Repasky EA. Adrenergic Receptor Signaling Regulates Metabolic Pathways Critical to Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Function within the Tme. Cell Reports 2021;37:109883.

Ref. 410. Perego M, Tyurin VA, Tyurina YY, Yellets J, Nacarelli T, Lin C, et al. Reactivation of Dormant Tumor Cells by Modified Lipids Derived from Stress-Activated Neutrophils. Sci Transl Med 2020;12.

Ref. 411. Dai S, Mo Y, Wang Y, Xiang B, Liao Q, Zhou M, et al. Chronic Stress Promotes Cancer Development. Front Oncol 2020;10:1492.

Ref. 412. Newman LA. Cascading Consequences of Systemic Racism on Public Health. Ann Surg 2021;273:10-2.

Ref. 413. Doubeni CA, Selby K, Levin TR. Disparities in Preventable Mortality from Colorectal Cancer: Are They the Result of Structural Racism? Gastroenterology 2021;160:1022-5.

Ref. 414. Abraham IE, Rauscher GH, Patel AA, Pearse W, Rajakumar P, Burkart M, et al. Structural Racism Is a Mediator of Disparities in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Outcomes. Blood 2022;139(14):2212­2226.

Ref. 415. Carlos RC, Obeng-Gyasi S, Cole SW, Zebrack BJ, Pisano ED, Troester MA, et al. Linking Structural Racism and Discrimination and Breast Cancer Outcomes: A Social Genomics Approach. J Clin Oncol 2022:Jco2102004.

Ref. 416. Zhang J, Ye ZW, Townsend DM, Hughes-Halbert C, Tew KD. Racial Disparities, Cancer and Response to Oxidative Stress. Advances in cancer research 2019;144:343-83.

Ref. 417. Linnenbringer E, Gehlert S, Geronimus AT. Black-White Disparities in Breast Cancer Subtype: The Intersection of Socially Patterned Stress and Genetic Expression. AIMS Public Health 2017;4:526-56.

Ref. 418. Minas TZ, Kiely M, Ajao A, Ambs S. An Overview of Cancer Health Disparities: New Approaches and Insights and Why They Matter. Carcinogenesis 2021;42:2-13.

Ref. 419. Kraav SL, Lehto SM, Kauhanen J, Hantunen S, Tolmunen T. Loneliness and Social Isolation Increase Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of Finnish Middle-Aged Men. A Longitudinal Study. Psychiatry Res 2021;299:113868.

Ref. 420. Kroenke CH, Michael YL, Poole EM, Kwan ML, Nechuta S, Leas E, et al. Postdiagnosis Social Networks and Breast Cancer Mortality in the after Breast Cancer Pooling Project. Cancer 2017;123:1228-37.

Ref. 421. Fleisch Marcus A, Illescas AH, Hohl BC, Llanos AAM. Relationships between Social Isolation, Neighborhood Poverty, and Cancer Mortality in a Population-Based Study of US Adults. PLOS ONE 2017;12:e0173370.

Ref. 422. Cacioppo JT, Hawkley LC. Social Isolation and Health, with an Emphasis on Underlying Mechanisms. Perspect Biol Med 2003;46:S39-52.

Ref. 423. Washington A, Randall J. “We’re Not Taken Seriously”: Describing the Experiences of Perceived Discrimination in Medical Settings for Black Women. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2022:1-9.

Ref. 424. Zvolensky MJ, Rogers AH, Mayorga NA, Shepherd JM, Bakhshaie J, Garza M, et al. Perceived Discrimination, Experiential Avoidance, and Mental Health among Hispanic Adults in Primary Care. Transcultural Psychiatry 2022;3:337-348.

Ref. 425. Coughlin SS. A Review of Social Determinants of Prostate Cancer Risk, Stage, and Survival. Prostate International 2020;8:49-54.

Ref. 426. Cuevas AG, Trudel-Fitzgerald C, Cofie L, Zaitsu M, Allen J, Williams DR. Placing Prostate Cancer Disparities within a Psychosocial Context: Challenges and Opportunities for Future Research. Cancer Causes Control 2019;30:443-56.

Ref. 427. Iyanda AE, Lu Y. ‘Gentrification Is Not Improving My Health’: A Mixed-Method Investigation of Chronic Health Conditions in Rapidly Changing Urban Neighborhoods in Austin, Texas. J Hous Built Environ 2021:1-24.

Ref. 428. Annesi CA, Poulson MR, Mak KS, Tapan U, Dechert TA, Litle VR, et al. The Impact of Residential Racial Segregation on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment and Outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg 2022;113:1291-8.

Ref. 429. Poulson MR, Blanco BA, Geary AD, Kenzik KM, McAneny DB, Tseng JF, et al. The Role of Racial Segregation in Treatment and Outcomes among Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. HPB (Oxford) 2021;23:854-60.

Ref. 430. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Effects of Gentrification. [updated October 15, 2009, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 431. Poulson MR, Beaulieu-Jones BR, Kenzik KM, Dechert TA, Ko NY, Sachs TE, et al. Residential Racial Segregation and Disparities in Breast Cancer Presentation, Treatment, and Survival. Ann Surg 2021;273:3-9.

Ref. 432. Sánchez-Díaz CT, Strayhorn S, Tejeda S, Vijayasiri G, Rauscher GH, Molina Y. What Mediates the Racial/Ethnic Disparity in Psychosocial Stress among Breast Cancer Patients? Cancer Causes Control 2021;32:357-67.

Ref. 433. Mazor M, Wisnivesky JP, Goel M, Harris YT, Lin JJ. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Post-Traumatic Stress and Illness Coherence in Breast Cancer Survivors with Comorbid Diabetes. Psycho-Oncology 2021;30:1789-98.

Ref. 434. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Discrimination in America: Final Summary. [updated January 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­Final-Summary.pdf

Ref. 435. Xing CY, Doose M, Qin B, Lin Y, Plascak JJ, Omene C, et al. Prediagnostic Allostatic Load as a Predictor of Poorly Differentiated and Larger Sized Breast Cancers among Black Women in the Women’s Circle of Health Follow-up Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020;29:216-24.

Ref. 436. Shiels PG, Buchanan S, Selman C, Stenvinkel P. Allostatic Load and Ageing: Linking the Microbiome and Nutrition with Age-Related Health. Biochem Soc Trans 2019;47:1165-72.

Ref. 437. Mathew A, Doorenbos AZ, Li H, Jang MK, Park CG, Bronas UG. Allostatic Load in Cancer: A Systematic Review and Mini Meta-Analysis. Biological Research For Nursing 2021;23:341-61.

Ref. 438. Obeng-Gyasi S, Tarver W, Carlos RC, Andersen BL. Allostatic Load: A Framework to Understand Breast Cancer Outcomes in Black Women. NPJ Breast Cancer 2021;7:100.

Ref. 439. Adams-Campbell LL, Taylor T, Hicks J, Lu J, Dash C. The Effect of a 6-Month Exercise Intervention Trial on Allostatic Load in Black Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer: The Fierce Study. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 2021;10.1007/s40615-021-01145-x.

Ref. 440. Koritala BSC, Porter KI, Arshad OA, Gajula RP, Mitchell HD, Arman T, et al. Night Shift Schedule Causes Circadian Dysregulation of DNA Repair Genes and Elevated DNA Damage in Humans. Journal of Pineal Research 2021;70:e12726.

Ref. 441. Yuan X, Zhu C, Wang M, Mo F, Du W, Ma X. Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 61 Articles. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2018;27:25-40.

Ref. 442. Jackson CL, Redline S, Kawachi I, Williams MA, Hu FB. Racial Disparities in Short Sleep Duration by Occupation and Industry. Am J Epidemiol 2013;178:1442-51.

Ref. 443. Grandner MA, Williams NJ, Knutson KL, Roberts D, Jean-Louis G. Sleep Disparity, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Position. Sleep Med 2016;18:7-18.

Ref. 444. de Koning HJ, van der Aalst CM, de Jong PA, Scholten ET, Nackaerts K, Heuvelmans MA, et al. Reduced Lung-Cancer Mortality with Volume Ct Screening in a Randomized Trial. New England Journal of Medicine 2020;382:503-13.

Ref. 445. Duffy SW, Tabár L, Yen AM-F, Dean PB, Smith RA, Jonsson H, et al. Mammography Screening Reduces Rates of Advanced and Fatal Breast Cancers: Results in 549,091 Women. Cancer 2020;126:2971-9.

Ref. 446. Sharma KP, Grosse SD, Maciosek MV, Joseph D, Roy K, Richardson LC, et al. Preventing Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Deaths: Assessing the Impact of Increased Screening. Prev Chronic Dis 2020;17:E123.

Ref. 447. Liu D, Schuchard H, Burston B, Yamashita T, Albert S. Interventions to Reduce Healthcare Disparities in Cancer Screening among Minority Adults: A Systematic Review. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021;8:107-26.

Ref. 448. Sabatino SA, Thompson TD, White MC, Shapiro JA, de Moor J, Doria-Rose VP, et al. Cancer Screening Test Receipt – United States, 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:29-35.

Ref. 449. Shete S, Deng Y, Shannon J, Faseru B, Middleton D, Iachan R, et al. Differences in Breast and Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence among Women Residing in Urban and Rural Communities in the United States. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2128000.

Ref. 450. Rustagi AS, Byers AL, Keyhani S. Likelihood of Lung Cancer Screening by Poor Health Status and Race and Ethnicity in US Adults, 2017 to 2020. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5:e225318.

References 451-500

Ref. 451. Benavidez GA, Zgodic A, Zahnd WE, Eberth JM. Disparities in Meeting USPSTF Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines among Women in the United States. Prev Chronic Dis 2021;18:E37.

Ref. 452. Alsheik N, Blount L, Qiong Q, Talley M, Pohlman S, Troeger K, et al. Outcomes by Race in Breast Cancer Screening with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Versus Digital Mammography. J Am Coll Radiol 2021;18:906-18.

Ref. 453. Moore JX, Han Y, Appleton C, Colditz G, Toriola AT. Determinants of Mammographic Breast Density by Race among a Large Screening Population. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 2020;4.

Ref. 454. Ezratty C, Vang S, Brown J, Margolies LR, Jandorf L, Lin JJ. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Supplemental Imaging for Breast Cancer Screening in Women with Dense Breasts. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020;182:181-5.

Ref. 455. Li Y, Xie H, Theodoropoulos N, Wang Q. Mammography Screening Disparities in Asian American Women: Findings from the California Health Interview Survey 2015-2016. J Clin Oncol 2021;39:e18568.

Ref. 456. Reece JC, Neal EFG, Nguyen P, McIntosh JG, Emery JD. Delayed or Failure to Follow-up Abnormal Breast Cancer Screening Mammograms in Primary Care: A Systematic Review. BMC Cancer 2021;21:373.

Ref. 457. Oladeru OT, Ma SJ, Miccio JA, Wang K, Attwood K, Singh AK, et al. Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Disparities in Transgender People. Am J Clin Oncol 2022;45:116-21.

Ref. 458. Sterling J, Garcia MM. Cancer Screening in the Transgender Population: A Review of Current Guidelines, Best Practices, and a Proposed Care Model. Transl Androl Urol 2020;9:2771-85.

Ref. 459. Nelson B. A Cancer Screening Crisis for Transgender Patients: Discrimination, Patient Unease, Provider Ignorance, and a Highly Gendered Health Care System Are Impeding Cancer Screening and Risk Assessment in the Transgender Population. In This Article, the First of a 2-Part Series, We Explore How Clinicians Can Begin to Address Those Barriers. Cancer Cytopathol 2019;127:421-2.

Ref. 460. Patterns of Mammography, Pap Smear, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Services among Women Aged 45 and Over. In: National Center for Health S, editor. National Health Statistics Reports, National health statistics reports ; no. 157. Hyattsville, MD. Available from:

Ref. 461. Scarinci IC, Garcia FAR, Kobetz E, Partridge EE, Brandt HM, Bell MC, et al. Cervical Cancer Prevention. Cancer 2010;116:2531-42.

Ref. 462. Suk R, Hong Y-R, Rajan SS, Xie Z, Zhu Y, Spencer JC. Assessment of US Preventive Services Task Force Guideline–Concordant Cervical Cancer Screening Rates and Reasons for Underscreening by Age, Race and Ethnicity, Sexual Orientation, Rurality, and Insurance, 2005 to 2019. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5:e2143582-e.

Ref. 463. Locklar LRB, Do DP. Rural-Urban Differences in HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening. J Rural Health 2022;38:409-15.

Ref. 464. Amram O, Amiri S, Robison J, Pflugeisen CM, Monsivais P. COVID-19 and Inequities in Colorectal and Cervical Cancer Screening and Diagnosis in Washington State. Cancer Med 2022

Ref. 465. American Cancer Society. Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figures 2020-2022.

Ref. 466. Force UPST. Screening for Colorectal Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA 2021;325:1965-77.

Ref. 467. Acuna-Villaorduna AR, Lin J, Kim M, Goel S. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer: Implications for a Racial/Ethnic-Specific Screening Strategy. Cancer Medicine 2021;10:2080-7.

Ref. 468. Viramontes O, Bastani R, Yang L, Glenn BA, Herrmann AK, May FP. Colorectal Cancer Screening among Hispanics in the United States: Disparities, Modalities, Predictors, and Regional Variation. Prev Med 2020;138:106146.

Ref. 469. White PM, Itzkowitz SH. Barriers Driving Racial Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2020;22:41.

Ref. 470. Earl V, Beasley D, Ye C, Halpin SN, Gauthreaux N, Escoffery C, et al. Barriers and Facilitators to Colorectal Cancer Screening in African-American Men. Dig Dis Sci 2022;67:463-72.

Ref. 471. Okereke IC, Nishi S, Zhou J, Goodwin JS. Trends in Lung Cancer Screening in the United States, 2016-2017. J Thorac Dis 2019;11:873-81.

Ref. 472. Aberle DR, Adams AM, Berg CD, Black WC, Clapp JD, Fagerstrom RM, et al. Reduced Lung-Cancer Mortality with Low-Dose Computed Tomographic Screening. N Engl J Med 2011;365:395-409.

Ref. 473. Aldrich MC, Mercaldo SF, Sandler KL, Blot WJ, Grogan EL, Blume JD. Evaluation of USPSTF Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines among African American Adult Smokers. JAMA Oncol 2019;5:1318-24.

Ref. 474. Narayan AK, Chowdhry DN, Fintelmann FJ, Little BP, Shepard J-AO, Flores EJ. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Lung Cancer Screening Eligibility. Radiology 2021;301:712-20.

Ref. 475. Potter AL, Yang CJ, Woolpert KM, Puttaraju T, Suzuki K, Palmer JR. Evaluating Eligibility of US Black Women under USPSTF Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines. JAMA Oncol 2022;8:163-4.

Ref. 476. Kunitomo Y, Bade B, Gunderson CG, Akgün KM, Brackett A, Cain H, et al. Racial Differences in Adherence to Lung Cancer Screening Follow-Up: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Chest 2022;161:266-75.

Ref. 477. Zgodic A, Zahnd WE, Miller DP, Jr., Studts JL, Eberth JM. Predictors of Lung Cancer Screening Utilization in a Population-Based Survey. J Am Coll Radiol 2020;17:1591-601.

Ref. 478. Hirsch EA, Barón AE, Risendal B, Studts JL, New ML, Malkoski SP. Determinants Associated with Longitudinal Adherence to Annual Lung Cancer Screening: A Retrospective Analysis of Claims Data. Journal of the American College of Radiology 2021;18:1084-94.

Ref. 479. Wang GX, Baggett TP, Pandharipande PV, Park ER, Percac-Lima S, Shepard J-AO, et al. Barriers to Lung Cancer Screening Engagement from the Patient and Provider Perspective. Radiology 2019;290:278-87.

Ref. 480. Oren O, Beach DF. Representation of African-American Patients in Clinical Studies of Prostate Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:e18057.

Ref. 481. Qiao E, Kotha NV, Nalawade V, Qian A, Voora RS, Nelson TJ, et al. Association of Increased Intensity of Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening in Younger African American Men with Improved Prostate Cancer Outcomes. J Clin Oncol 2021;39:5004.

Ref. 482. American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection. [updated April 23, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 483. Abashidze N, Stecher C, Rosenkrantz AB, Duszak R, Jr, Hughes DR. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Following an Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen Test. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2132388.

Ref. 484. Horton B, Alexeeff S, Prausnitz S, Avins AL, Presti J. Race-Specific Trends in Prostate Cancer Screening and Presentation before and after the 2012 United States Preventive Services Task Force Statement. Urology Practice 2022;9:64-71.

Ref. 485. Soror N, Keruakous A. Socio-Economic Disparities and Accessibility to Age-Appropriate Screening Tools. J Clin Oncol 2021;39:1529.

Ref. 486. Bumanlag IM, Nieves-Jimenez HR, Jaoude JA, Ludmir EB, Taniguchi CM. Abstract Po-249: Prostate Screening &Amp; Patient Knowledge on Psa Testing among Males: Analysis of the 2019 Nhis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2022;31:PO-249.

Ref. 487. Itzkowitz SH, Winawer SJ, Krauskopf M, Carlesimo M, Schnoll-Sussman FH, Huang K, et al. New York Citywide Colon Cancer Control Coalition: A Public Health Effort to Increase Colon Cancer Screening and Address Health Disparities. Cancer 2016;122:269-77.

Ref. 488. Brown JJ, Asumeng CK, Greenwald D, Weissman M, Zauber A, Striplin J, et al. Decreased Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Diverse Urban Population with Increased Colonoscopy Screening. BMC Public Health 2021;21:1280.

Ref. 489. Shokar NK, Calderon-Mora J, Molokwu J, Byrd T, Alomari A, Mallawaarachchi I, et al. Outcomes of a Multicomponent Culturally Tailored Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention among Underserved Hispanic Women (De Casa En Casa). Health Promot Pract 2021;22:112-21.

Ref. 490. Richman AR, Torres E, Wu Q, Kampschroeder AP. Evaluating a Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Rural Underserved Latina and Black Women. J Community Health 2020;45:1205-10.

Ref. 491. Doubeni CA, Corley DA, Zhao W, Lau Y, Jensen CD, Levin TR. Association between Improved Colorectal Screening and Racial Disparities. New England Journal of Medicine 2022;386:796-8.

Ref. 492. Huf SW, Asch DA, Volpp KG, Reitz C, Mehta SJ. Text Messaging and Opt-out Mailed Outreach in Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Gen Intern Med 2021;36:1958-64.

Ref. 493. Drossman DA, Chang L, Deutsch JK, Ford AC, Halpert A, Kroenke K, et al. A Review of the Evidence and Recommendations on Communication Skills and the Patient-Provider Relationship: A rome Foundation Working Team Report. Gastroenterology 2021;161:1670-88.e7.

Ref. 494. Xie Z, Chen G, Suk R, Dixon B, Jo A, Hong YR. Limited English Proficiency and Screening for Cervical, Breast, and Colorectal Cancers among Asian American Adults. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2022.

Ref. 495. Aldrighetti CM, Niemierko A, Van Allen E, Willers H, Kamran SC. Racial and Ethnic Disparities among Participants in Precision Oncology Clinical Studies. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2133205.

Ref. 496. Javier-DesLoges J, Nelson TJ, Murphy JD, McKay RR, Pan E, Parsons JK, et al. Disparities and Trends in the Participation of Minorities, Women, and the Elderly in Breast, Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials. Cancer 2022;128:770-7.

Ref. 497. Herremans KM, Riner AN, Winn RA, Trevino JG. Diversity and Inclusion in Pancreatic Cancer Clinical Trials. Gastroenterology 2021;161:1741-6.e3.

Ref. 498. Jayakrishnan T, Aulakh S, Baksh M, Nguyen K, Ailawadhi M, Samreen A, et al. Landmark Cancer Clinical Trials and Real-World Patient Populations: Examining Race and Age Reporting. Cancers 2021;13:5770.

Ref. 499. Angela K. Green NT, Jennifer J. Hsu, Nancy L. Yu, Peter B. Bach, and Susan Chimonas. Despite the Fda’s Five-Year Plan, Black Patients Remain Inadequately Represented in Clinical Trials for Drugs. Health Affairs 2022;41:368-74.

Ref. 500. Al Hadidi S, Mims M, Miller-Chism CN, Kamble R. Participation of African American Persons in Clinical Trials Supporting U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approval of Cancer Drugs. Ann Intern Med 2020;173:320-2.

References 501-550

Ref. 501. Camidge DR, Park H, Smoyer KE, Jacobs I, Lee LJ, Askerova Z, et al. Race and Ethnicity Representation in Clinical Trials: Findings from a Literature Review of Phase I Oncology Trials. Future Oncology 2021;17:3271-80.

Ref. 502. Rottas M, Thadeio P, Simons R, Houck R, Gruben D, Keller D, et al. Demographic Diversity of Participants in Pfizer Sponsored Clinical Trials in the United States. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2021;106:106421.

Ref. 503. Riner AN, Girma S, Vudatha V, Mukhopadhyay N, Skoro N, Gal TS, et al. Eligibility Criteria Perpetuate Disparities in Enrollment and Participation of Black Patients in Pancreatic Cancer Clinical Trials. J Clin Oncol 2022:Jco2102492.

Ref. 504. North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Cina Explorer: An Interactive Tool for Quick Access to Key Naaccr Cancer Statistics Based on the Cancer in North American (Cina) Dataset from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. [cited 2022 April 25]. Available from:

Ref. 505. Ajewole VB, Akindele O, Abajue U, Ndulue O, Marshall JJ, Mossi YT. Cancer Disparities and Black American Representation in Clinical Trials Leading to the Approval of Oral Chemotherapy Drugs in the United States between 2009 and 2019. JCO Oncol Pract 2021;17:e623-e8.

Ref. 506. Grette KV, White AL, Awad EK, Scalici JM, Young-Pierce J, Rocconi RP, et al. Not Immune to Inequity: Minority under-Representation in Immunotherapy Trials for Breast and Gynecologic Cancers. International Journal of Gynecologic Cancer 2021;31:1403-7.

Ref. 507. Saphner T, Marek A, Homa JK, Robinson L, Glandt N. Clinical Trial Participation Assessed by Age, Sex, Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status. Contemp Clin Trials 2021;103:106315.

Ref. 508. Unger JM, Beauchemin M, Hershman DL. Adolescent and Young Adult Enrollment to a National Cancer Institute–Sponsored National Clinical Trials Network Research Group over 25 Years. Cancer 2021;127:4574-84.

Ref. 509. Roth M, Beauchemin M, Kahn JM, Bleyer A. Patterns of National Cancer Institute-Sponsored Clinical Trial Enrollment in Black Adolescents and Young Adults. Cancer Med 2021;10:7620-8.

Ref. 510. Sae-Hau M, Disare K, Michaels M, Gentile A, Szumita L, Treiman K, et al. Overcoming Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Outcomes of a National Clinical Trial Matching and Navigation Service for Patients with a Blood Cancer. JCO Oncology Practice 2021;17:e1866-e78.

Ref. 511. Owens-Walton J, Williams C, Rompré-Brodeur A, Pinto PA, Ball MW. Minority Enrollment in Phase Ii and Iii Clinical Trials in Urologic Oncology. J Clin Oncol;0:JCO.21.01885.

Ref. 512. Kahn JM, Gray DM, 2nd, Oliveri JM, Washington CM, DeGraffinreid CR, Paskett ED. Strategies to Improve Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Clinical Trials. Cancer 2022;128:216-21.

Ref. 513. Hernandez ND, Durant R, Lisovicz N, Nweke C, Belizaire C, Cooper D, et al. African American Cancer Survivors’ Perspectives on Cancer Clinical Trial Participation in a Safety-Net Hospital: Considering the Role of the Social Determinants of Health. J Cancer Educ 2021;10.1007/s13187-021-01994-4.

Ref. 514. Unger JM, Moseley AB, Cheung CK, Osarogiagbon RU, Symington B, Ramsey SD, et al. Persistent Disparity: Socioeconomic Deprivation and Cancer Outcomes in Patients Treated in Clinical Trials. J Clin Oncol 2021;39:1339-48.

Ref. 515. Overcoming Barriers for Latinos on Cancer Clinical Trials. [updated December 13, 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 516. Aristizabal P, Ma AK, Kumar NV, Perdomo BP, Thornburg CD, Martinez ME, et al. Assessment of Factors Associated with Parental Perceptions of Voluntary Decisions About Child Participation in Leukemia Clinical Trials. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e219038.

Ref. 517. Huey RW, George GC, Phillips P, White R, Fu S, Janku F, et al. Patient-Reported out-of-Pocket Costs and Financial Toxicity During Early-Phase Oncology Clinical Trials. The Oncologist 2021;26:588-96.

Ref. 518. Rogers CR, Matthews P, Brooks E, Duc NL, Washington C, McKoy A, et al. Barriers to and Facilitators of Recruitment of Adult African American Men for Colorectal Cancer Research: An Instrumental Exploratory Case Study. JCO Oncology Practice 2021;17:e686-e94.

Ref. 519. Lee A, Shah K, Chino F. Assessment of Parking Fees at National Cancer Institute–Designated Cancer Treatment Centers. JAMA Oncol 2020;6:1295-7.

Ref. 520. Nupur Mittal A-ML, Wade Kyono, David S. Dickens, Allison Grimes, John M. Salsman, Brad H. Pollock, and Michael Roth. Barriers to Pediatric Oncologist Enrollment of Adolescents and Young Adults on a Cross-Network National Clinical Trials Network Supportive Care Cancer Clinical Trial. Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology 2022;11:117-21.

Ref. 521. Mittal N, Saha A, Avutu V, Monga V, Freyer DR, Roth M. Shared Barriers and Facilitators to Enrollment of Adolescents and Young Adults on Cancer Clinical Trials. Scientific reports 2022;12:3875.

Ref. 522. Niranjan SJ, Martin MY, Fouad MN, Vickers SM, Wenzel JA, Cook ED, et al. Bias and Stereotyping among Research and Clinical Professionals: Perspectives on Minority Recruitment for Oncology Clinical Trials. Cancer 2020;126:1958-68.

Ref. 523. Garrick O, Mesa R, Ferris A, Kim ES, Mitchell E, Brawley OW, et al. Advancing Inclusive Research: Establishing Collaborative Strategies to Improve Diversity in Clinical Trials. Ethn Dis 2022;32:61-8.

Ref. 524. Wang W-J, Ramsey SD, Bennette CS, Bansal A. Racial Disparities in Access to Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials: A County-Level Analysis. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 2021;6.

Ref. 525. Tharakan S, Zhong X, Galsky MD. The Impact of the Globalization of Cancer Clinical Trials on the Enrollment of Black Patients. Cancer 2021;127:2294-301.

Ref. 526. Owens-Walton J, Williams C, Rompré-Brodeur A, Pinto PA, Ball MW. Minority Enrollment in Phase II and III Clinical Trials in Urologic Oncology. J Clin Oncol 2022;40(14):1583-1589.

Ref. 527. U.S. Food & Drug. Enhancing the Diversity of Clinical Trial Populations—Eligibility Criteria, Enrollment Practices, and Trial Designs Guidance for Industry. [updated November 13, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­enrollment-practices-and-trial

Ref. 528. Fashoyin-Aje L, Beaver JA, Pazdur R. Promoting Inclusion of Members of Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in Cancer Drug Development. JAMA Oncol 2021;7:1445-6.

Ref. 529. Cunningham-Erves J, Mayo-Gamble TL, Hull PC, Lu T, Barajas C, McAfee CR, et al. A Pilot Study of a Culturally-Appropriate, Educational Intervention to Increase Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials among African Americans and Latinos. Cancer Causes Control 2021;32:953-63.

Ref. 530. Carroll DM, Hernandez C, Braaten G, Meier E, Jacobson P, Begnaud A, et al. Recommendations to Researchers for Aiding in Increasing American Indian Representation in Genetic Research and Personalized Medicine. Per Med 2021;18:67-74.

Ref. 531. Tilley BC, Mainous AG, 3rd, Amorrortu RP, McKee MD, Smith DW, Li R, et al. Using Increased Trust in Medical Researchers to Increase Minority Recruitment: The Recruit Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial. Contemp Clin Trials 2021;109:106519.

Ref. 532. Guerra CE, Sallee V, Hwang W-T, Bryant B, Washington AL, Takvorian SU, et al. Accrual of Black Participants to Cancer Clinical Trials Following a Five-Year Prospective Initiative of Community Outreach and Engagement. J Clin Oncol 2021;39:100.

Ref. 533. Kanapuru B, Singh H, Fashoyin-Aje LA, Myers A, Kim G, Farrell A, et al. FDA Analysis of Patient Enrollment by Region in Clinical Trials for Approved Oncological Indications. J Clin Oncol 2017;35:2539.

Ref. 534. Unger JM, Vaidya R, Hershman DL, Minasian LM, Fleury ME. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Magnitude of Structural, Clinical, and Physician and Patient Barriers to Cancer Clinical Trial Participation. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2019;111:245-55.

Ref. 535. Liu R, Rizzo S, Whipple S, Pal N, Pineda AL, Lu M, et al. Evaluating Eligibility Criteria of Oncology Trials Using Real-World Data and Ai. Nature 2021;592:629-33.

Ref. 536. Torres TK, Chase DM, Salani R, Hamann HA, Stone J. Implicit Biases in Healthcare: Implications and Future Directions for Gynecologic Oncology. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2022; S0002-9378(22)00005-9.

Ref. 537. Berrahou IK, Snow A, Swanson M, Obedin-Maliver J. Representation of Sexual and Gender Minority People in Patient Nondiscrimination Policies of Cancer Centers in the United States. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2022;20:253-9.

Ref. 538. Zettler ME, Feinberg BA, Jeune-Smith Y, Gajra A. Impact of Social Determinants of Health on Cancer Care: A Survey of Community Oncologists. BMJ Open 2021;11:e049259.

Ref. 539. Seible DM, Kundu S, Azuara A, Cherry DR, Arias S, Nalawade VV, et al. The Influence of Patient-Provider Language Concordance in Cancer Care: Results of the Hispanic Outcomes by Language Approach (HOLA) Randomized Trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021;111:856-64.

Ref. 540. Russell S, Corbitt N. Addressing Cultural Competency: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Cancer Care. Clin J Oncol Nurs 2022;26:183-9.

Ref. 541. Human Rights Campaign Foundation. Healthcare Equality Index 2022. [updated March 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 542. Jain U, Jain B, Fayanju OM, Chino F, Dee EC. Disparities in Timely Treatment among Young Women with Breast Cancer. The American Journal of Surgery.

Ref. 543. Jain B, Yamoah K, Lathan CS, Muralidhar V, Mahal BA, Nguyen PL, et al. Racial Disparities in Treatment Delay among Younger Men with Prostate Cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2022.

Ref. 544. Balazy KE, Benitez CM, Gutkin PM, Jacobson CE, von Eyben R, Horst KC. Delays in Care Associated with Non–English-Speaking Patients with Breast Cancer. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2021; jnccn20467.

Ref. 545. Dee EC, Arega MA, Yang DD, Butler SS, Mahal BA, Sanford NN, et al. Disparities in Refusal of Locoregional Treatment for Prostate Adenocarcinoma. JCO Oncology Practice 2021;17:e1489-e501.

Ref. 546. Obrochta CA, Murphy JD, Tsou MH, Thompson CA. Disentangling Racial, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Treatment for Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021;30:1546-53.

Ref. 547. Howard JM, Nandy K, Woldu SL, Margulis V. Demographic Factors Associated with Non-Guideline–Based Treatment of Kidney Cancer in the United States. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2112813.

Ref. 548. Zhou K, Pickering TA, Gainey CS, Cockburn M, Stern MC, Liu L, et al. Presentation, Management, and Outcomes across the Rural-Urban Continuum for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 2020;5.

Ref. 549. Ju MR, Wang SC, Mansour JC, Polanco PM, Yopp AC, III HJZ, et al. Disparities in Guideline-Concordant Treatment and Survival among Border County Residents with Gastric Cancer. JCO Oncology Practice;0:OP.21.00431.

Ref. 550. Dhakal P, Lyden E, Joshi U, Pyakuryal A, Gundabolu K, Zeidan AM, et al. Disparity in Utilization of Multiagent Therapy for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in the United States. Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia 2021; (5):319-325.

References 551-600

Ref. 551. Zahnd WE, Murphy C, Knoll M, Benavidez GA, Day KR, Ranganathan R, et al. The Intersection of Rural Residence and Minority Race/Ethnicity in Cancer Disparities in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021;18:1384.

Ref. 552. Johnson CJ, Morawski BM, Hobbs L, Lewis D, Cariou C, Rycroft RK. Time from Breast Cancer Diagnosis to Treatment among Idaho’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Population, 2011-2017. Cancer Causes Control 2021;32:667-73.

Ref. 553. Riviere P, Luterstein E, Kumar A, Vitzthum LK, Deka R, Sarkar RR, et al. Survival of African American and Non-Hispanic White Men with Prostate Cancer in an Equal-Access Health Care System. Cancer 2020;126:1683-90.

Ref. 554. Fillmore NR, Yellapragada SV, Ifeorah C, Mehta A, Cirstea D, White PS, et al. With Equal Access, African American Patients Have Superior Survival Compared to White Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Va Study. Blood 2019;133:2615-8.

Ref. 555. Cykert S, Eng E, Walker P, Manning MA, Robertson LB, Arya R, et al. A System-Based Intervention to Reduce Black-White Disparities in the Treatment of Early Stage Lung Cancer: A Pragmatic Trial at Five Cancer Centers. Cancer Medicine 2019;8:1095-102.

Ref. 556. Chu QD, Hsieh MC, Gibbs JF, Wu XC. Treatment at a High-Volume Academic Research Program Mitigates Racial Disparities in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. J Gastrointest Oncol 2021;12:2579-90.

Ref. 557. Kotha NV, Kumar A, Qiao EM, Qian AS, Voora RS, Nalawade V, et al. Association of Health-Care System and Survival in African American and Non-Hispanic White Patients with Bladder Cancer. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2022;114(4):600-608.

Ref. 558. Lam MB, Raphael K, Mehtsun WT, Phelan J, Orav EJ, Jha AK, et al. Changes in Racial Disparities in Mortality after Cancer Surgery in the US, 2007-2016. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e2027415.

Ref. 559. Namburi N, Timsina L, Ninad N, Ceppa D, Birdas T. The Impact of Social Determinants of Health on Management of Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Am J Surg 2021;S0002-9610(21)00614-0.

Ref. 560. Obeng-Gyasi S, Asad S, Fisher JL, Rahurkar S, Stover DG. Socioeconomic and Surgical Disparities Are Associated with Rapid Relapse in Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2021;28:6500-9.

Ref. 561. Cho B, Han Y, Lian M, Colditz GA, Weber JD, Ma C, et al. Evaluation of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Treatment and Mortality among Women with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. JAMA Oncol 2021;7:1016-23.

Ref. 562. Makar GS, Makar M, Obinero C, Davis W, Gaughan JP, Kwiatt M. Refusal of Cancer-Directed Surgery in Patients with Colon Cancer: Risk Factors of Refusal and Survival Data. Annals of Surgical Oncology 2021;28:606-16.

Ref. 563. Merritt RE, Abdel-Rasoul M, D’Souza DM, Kneuertz PJ. Racial Disparities in Overall Survival and Surgical Treatment for Early Stage Lung Cancer by Facility Type. Clin Lung Cancer 2021;22:e691-e8.

Ref. 564. Falcone M, Liu L, Farias A, Zhang J, Kang I, Li M, et al. Evidence for Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Emergency Department Visits Following Breast Cancer Surgery among Women in California: A Population-Based Study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2021;187:831-41.

Ref. 565. Gachupin FC, Lee BR, Chipollini J, Pulling KR, Cruz A, Wong AC, et al. Renal Cell Carcinoma Surgical Treatment Disparities in American Indian/Alaska Natives and Hispanic Americans in Arizona. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022;19:1185.

Ref. 566. Navarro S, Yang Y, Ochoa CY, Mejia A, Kim SE, Liu L, et al. Asian Ethnic Subgroup Disparities in Delays of Surgical Treatment for Breast Cancer. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 2021;6(1):pkab089.

Ref. 567. Azap RA, Hyer JM, Diaz A, Paredes AZ, Pawlik TM. Association of County-Level Vulnerability, Patient-Level Race/Ethnicity, and Receipt of Surgery for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma. JAMA Surgery 2021;156:197-9.

Ref. 568. Lamm R, Hewitt DB, Li M, Powell AC, Berger AC. Socioeconomic Status and Gastric Cancer Surgical Outcomes: A National Cancer Database Study. The Journal of surgical research 2022;275:318-26.

Ref. 569. Neroda P, Hsieh MC, Wu XC, Cartmell KB, Mayo R, Wu J, et al. Racial Disparity and Social Determinants in Receiving Timely Surgery among Stage I-Iiia Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients in a U.S. Southern State. Front Public Health 2021;9:662876.

Ref. 570. Kirkpatrick DR, Markov NP, Fox JP, Tuttle RM. Initial Surgical Treatment for Breast Cancer and the Distance Traveled for Care. Am Surg 2021;87:1280-6.

Ref. 571. Sarkar RR, Courtney PT, Bachand K, Sheridan PE, Riviere PJ, Guss ZD, et al. Quality of Care at Safety-Net Hospitals and the Impact on Pay-for-Performance Reimbursement. Cancer 2020;126:4584-92.

Ref. 572. Kelly KN, Hernandez A, Yadegarynia S, Ryon E, Franceschi D, Avisar E, et al. Overcoming Disparities: Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Care at a Public Safety Net Hospital. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021;187:197-206.

Ref. 573. Tseng JF, Kronowitz SJ, Sun CC, Perry AC, Hunt KK, Babiera GV, et al. The Effect of Ethnicity on Immediate Reconstruction Rates after Mastectomy for Breast Cancer. Cancer 2004;101:1514-23.

Ref. 574. Tang C, Lei X, Smith GL, Pan HY, Hoffman KE, Kumar R, et al. Influence of Geography on Prostate Cancer Treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021;109:1286-95.

Ref. 575. Herb J, Holmes M, Stitzenberg K. Trends in Rural-Urban Disparities among Surgical Specialties Treating Cancer, 2004­2017. J Rural Health 2022.

Ref. 576. Erdrich J, Cordova-Marks F, Monetathchi AR, Wu M, White A, Melkonian S. Disparities in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native Women Compared with Non-Hispanic White Women. Annals of Surgical Oncology 2022;29:1019-30.

Ref. 577. Powis M, Milley-Daigle C, Hack S, Alibhai S, Singh S, Krzyzanowska MK. Impact of the Early Phase of the COVID Pandemic on Cancer Treatment Delivery and the Quality of Cancer Care: A Scoping Review and Conceptual Model. Int J Qual Health Care 2021;33.

Ref. 578. Bernstein AN, Talwar R, Handorf E, Syed K, Danella J, Ginzburg S, et al. Assessment of Prostate Cancer Treatment among Black and White Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Oncol 2021;7:1467-73.

Ref. 579. Hoehn RS, Rieser CJ, Winters S, Stitt L, Hogg ME, Bartlett DL, et al. A Pancreatic Cancer Multidisciplinary Clinic Eliminates Socioeconomic Disparities in Treatment and Improves Survival. Ann Surg Oncol 2021;28:2438-46.

Ref. 580. Zhao S, Xian X, Tian P, Li W, Wang K, Li Y. Efficacy of Combination Chemo-Immunotherapy as a First-Line Treatment for Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients with HER2 Alterations: A Case Series. Frontiers in Oncology 2021;11:633522.

Ref. 581. Morrow M, Newman LA. Disparities in Cancer Care: Educational Initiatives. Ann Surg Oncol 2022;29:2136-7.

Ref. 582. Mantz CA, Thaker NG, Deville C, Jr., Hubbard A, Pendyala P, Mohideen N, et al. A Medicare Claims Analysis of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Access to Radiation Therapy Services. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2022; 10.1007/s40615-022-01239-0.

Ref. 583. Wakefield DV, Carnell M, Dove APH, Edmonston DY, Garner WB, Hubler A, et al. Location as Destiny: Identifying Geospatial Disparities in Radiation Treatment Interruption by Neighborhood, Race, and Insurance. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020;107:815-26.

Ref. 584. Woodward SG, Varshney K, Anne PR, George BJ, Willis AI. Trends in Use of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiation in Breast Cancer: An Analysis of the National Cancer Database. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021;109:449-57.

Ref. 585. Laucis AM, Jagsi R, Griffith KA, Dominello MM, Walker EM, Abu-Isa EI, et al. The Role of Facility Variation on Racial Disparities in Use of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiation Therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020;107:949-58.

Ref. 586. Smith BD, Bellon JR, Blitzblau R, Freedman G, Haffty B, Hahn C, et al. Radiation Therapy for the Whole Breast: Executive Summary of an American Society for Radiation Oncology (Astro) Evidence-Based Guideline. Pract Radiat Oncol 2018;8:145-52.

Ref. 587. Haviland JS, Owen JR, Dewar JA, Agrawal RK, Barrett J, Barrett-Lee PJ, et al. The Uk Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy (Start) Trials of Radiotherapy Hypofractionation for Treatment of Early Breast Cancer: 10-Year Follow-up Results of Two Randomised Controlled Trials. Lancet Oncol 2013;14:1086-94.

Ref. 588. Shaitelman SF, Schlembach PJ, Arzu I, Ballo M, Bloom ES, Buchholz D, et al. Acute and Short-Term Toxic Effects of Conventionally Fractionated Vs Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol 2015;1:931-41.

Ref. 589. Noyes EA, Burks CA, Larson AR, Deschler DG. An Equity-Based Narrative Review of Barriers to Timely Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2021;6:1358-66.

Ref. 590. Boyce-Fappiano D, Nguyen KA, Gjyshi O, Manzar G, Abana CO, Klopp AH, et al. Socioeconomic and Racial Determinants of Brachytherapy Utilization for Cervical Cancer: Concerns for Widening Disparities. JCO Oncol Pract 2021;17:e1958-e67.

Ref. 591. Greer MD, Amiri S, Denney JT, Amram O, Halasz LM, Buchwald D. Disparities in Access to Radiation Therapy Facilities among American Indians/Alaska Natives and Hispanics in Washington State. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2022;112:285-93.

Ref. 592. Maroongroge S, Wallington DG, Taylor PA, Zhu D, Guadagnolo BA, Smith BD, et al. Geographic Access to Radiation Therapy Facilities in the United States. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2022;112:600-10.

Ref. 593. Arega MA, Yang DD, Royce TJ, Mahal BA, Dee EC, Butler SS, et al. Association between Travel Distance and Use of Postoperative Radiation Therapy among Men with Organ-Confined Prostate Cancer: Does Geography Influence Treatment Decisions? Practical Radiation Oncology 2021;11:e426-e33.

Ref. 594. Mitsakos AT, Irish W, Parikh AA, Snyder RA. The Association of Health Insurance and Race with Treatment and Survival in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. PLoS One 2022;17:e0263818.

Ref. 595. Hoeh B, Würnschimmel C, Flammia RS, Horlemann B, Sorce G, Chierigo F, et al. Effect of Chemotherapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer According to Race/Ethnicity Groups. Prostate 2022;82:676-86.

Ref. 596. Venkat S, Lewicki PJ, Khan AI, Gaffney C, Borregales L, Scherr DS. Sociodemographic Disparities in Access to Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021;(2):e140-e150.

Ref. 597. Tang A, Mittal A, Mooney CM, Khoury AL, Chiang A, Lai N, et al. Factors Delaying Chemotherapy in Patients with Breast Cancer at a Safety-Net Hospital. J Natl Med Assoc 2022;113:706-12.

Ref. 598. Barrington DA, Sinnott JA, Nixon D, Padamsee TJ, Cohn DE, Doll KM, et al. More Than Treatment Refusal: A National Cancer Database Analysis of Adjuvant Treatment Refusal and Racial Survival Disparities among Women with Endometrial Cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022;S0002-9378(22)00174-0.

Ref. 599. Spring LM, Fell G, Arfe A, Sharma C, Greenup R, Reynolds KL, et al. Pathologic Complete Response after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Impact on Breast Cancer Recurrence and Survival: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Clinical Cancer Research 2020;26:2838-48.

Ref. 600. Sparano JA, Gray RJ, Makower DF, Pritchard KI, Albain KS, Hayes DF, et al. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Guided by a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Breast Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2018;379:111-21.

References 601-650

Ref. 601. Kalinsky K, Barlow WE, Gralow JR, Meric-Bernstam F, Albain KS, Hayes DF, et al. 21-Gene Assay to Inform Chemotherapy Benefit in Node-Positive Breast Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2021;385:2336-47.

Ref. 602. Bilani N, Ladki S, Yaghi M, Main O, Jabbal IS, Elson L, et al. Factors Associated with the Decision to Decline Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage, ER+/HER2- Breast Cancer and High-Risk Scoring on Genomic Assays. Clinical Breast Cancer 2022;(4):367-373.

Ref. 603. Hoskins KF, Danciu OC, Ko NY, Calip GS. Association of Race/Ethnicity and the 21-Gene Recurrence Score with Breast Cancer– Specific Mortality among US Women. JAMA Oncol 2021;7:370-8.

Ref. 604. Collin LJ, Yan M, Jiang R, Ward KC, Crawford B, Torres MA, et al. Oncotype Dx Recurrence Score Implications for Disparities in Chemotherapy and Breast Cancer Mortality in Georgia. NPJ Breast Cancer 2019;5:32.

Ref. 605. Reeder-Hayes K, Peacock Hinton S, Meng K, Carey LA, Dusetzina SB. Disparities in Use of Human Epidermal Growth Hormone Receptor 2-Targeted Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2003-9.

Ref. 606. Emerson MA, Achacoso NS, Benefield HC, Troester MA, Habel LA. Initiation and Adherence to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy among Urban, Insured American Indian/Alaska Native Breast Cancer Survivors. Cancer 2021;127:1847-56.

Ref. 607. Palazzo LL, Sheehan DF, Tramontano AC, Kong CY. Disparities and Trends in Genetic Testing and Erlotinib Treatment among Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019;28:926-34.

Ref. 608. Kehl KL, Lathan CS, Johnson BE, Schrag D. Race, Poverty, and Initial Implementation of Precision Medicine for Lung Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2019;111:431-4.

Ref. 609. Kurian AW, Ward KC, Howlader N, Deapen D, Hamilton AS, Mariotto A, et al. Genetic Testing and Results in a Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Patients and Ovarian Cancer Patients. J Clin Oncol 2019;37:1305-15.

Ref. 610. McBride CM, Pathak S, Johnson CE, Alberg AJ, Bandera EV, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, et al. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Genetic Testing Status among African American Women with Ovarian Cancer: Results from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study. Cancer 2022;128:1252-9.

Ref. 611. Ademuyiwa FO, Salyer P, Tao Y, Luo J, Hensing WL, Afolalu A, et al. Genetic Counseling and Testing in African American Patients with Breast Cancer: A Nationwide Survey of US Breast Oncologists. J Clin Oncol 2021;39:4020-8.

Ref. 612. Hein DM, Deng W, Bleile M, Kazmi SA, Rhead B, De La Vega FM, et al. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Genomic Profiling of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2022;114(5):775-778.

Ref. 613. Gamble CR, Huang Y, Wright JD, Hou JY. Precision Medicine Testing in Ovarian Cancer: The Growing Inequity between Patients with Commercial Vs Medicaid Insurance. Gynecol Oncol 2021;162:18-23.

Ref. 614. Vargason AB, Turner CE, Shriver CD, Ellsworth RE. Genetic Testing in Non-Hispanic Black Women with Breast Cancer Treated within an Equal-Access Healthcare System. Genetics in Medicine 2022;24:232-7.

Ref. 615. Ashrafzadeh S, Asgari MM, Geller AC. The Need for Critical Examination of Disparities in Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy Use among Patients with Cancer. JAMA Oncol 2021;7:1115-6.

Ref. 616. Rai P, Shen C, Kolodney J, Kelly KM, Scott VG, Sambamoorthi U. Factors Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Use among Older Adults with Late-Stage Melanoma: A Population-Based Study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2021;100:e24782.

Ref. 617. Moyers JT, Patel A, Shih W, Nagaraj G. Association of Sociodemographic Factors with Immunotherapy Receipt for Metastatic Melanoma in the US. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e2015656.

Ref. 618. Tripathi R, Archibald LK, Mazmudar RS, Conic RRZ, Rothermel LD, Scott JF, et al. Racial Differences in Time to Treatment for Melanoma. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2020;83:854-9.

Ref. 619. Olsen TA, Martini DJ, Goyal S, Liu Y, Evans ST, Magod B, et al. Racial Differences in Clinical Outcomes for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients Treated with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade. Frontiers in Oncology 2021;11:701345.

Ref. 620. Thompson LL, Pan CX, Chang MS, Krasnow NA, Blum AE, Chen ST. Impact of Ethnicity on the Diagnosis and Management of Cutaneous Toxicities from Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. J Am Acad Dermatol 2021;84:851-4.

Ref. 621. Brawley OW, Luhn P, Reese-White D, Ogbu UC, Madhavan S, Wilson G, et al. Disparities in Tumor Mutational Burden, Immunotherapy Use, and Outcomes Based on Genomic Ancestry in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. JCO Glob Oncol 2021;7:1537-46.

Ref. 622. Snyder RA, He J, Le-Rademacher J, Ou FS, Dodge AB, Zemla TJ, et al. Racial Differences in Survival and Response to Therapy in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of CALGB/SWOG 80405 (Alliance A151931). Cancer 2021;127:3801-8.

Ref. 623. Ma TM, Romero T, Nickols NG, Rettig MB, Garraway IP, Roach M, 3rd, et al. Comparison of Response to Definitive Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer in Black and White Men: A Meta-Analysis. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2139769.

Ref. 624. George DJ, Halabi S, Heath EI, Sartor AO, Sonpavde GP, Das D, et al. A Prospective Trial of Abiraterone Acetate Plus Prednisone in Black and White Men with Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cancer 2021;127:2954-65.

Ref. 625. Gupta A, Zhang D, Braithwaite D, Karanth SD, Tailor TD, Clarke JM, et al. Racial Differences in Survival among Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Who Received Immunotherapy: An Analysis of the US National Cancer Database (Ncdb). J Immunother 2022;45:132-7.

Ref. 626. Mobley EM, Tfirn I, Guerrier C, Gutter MS, Vigal K, Pather K, et al. Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Pancreatic Cancer: An Examination of Sociodemographic Disparity in 1-Year Survival. J Am Coll Surg 2022;234:75-84.

Ref. 627. Lin M, O’Guinn M, Zipprer E, Hsieh JC, Dardon AT, Raman S, et al. Impact of Medicaid Expansion on the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcomes of Stage II and III Rectal Cancer Patients. J Am Coll Surg 2022;234:54-63.

Ref. 628. Michel KF, Spaulding A, Jemal A, Yabroff KR, Lee DJ, Han X. Associations of Medicaid Expansion with Insurance Coverage, Stage at Diagnosis, and Treatment among Patients with Genitourinary Malignant Neoplasms. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e217051.

Ref. 629. Adamson BJS, Cohen AB, Gross CP, Estévez M, Magee K, Williams E, et al. Aca Medicaid Expansion Association with Racial Disparity Reductions in Timely Cancer Treatment. Am J Manag Care 2021;27:274-81.

Ref. 630. Marar M, Long Q, Mamtani R, Narayan V, Vapiwala N, Parikh RB. Outcomes among African American and Non-Hispanic White Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer with First-Line Abiraterone. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5:e2142093.

Ref. 631. Halabi S, Dutta S, Tangen CM, Rosenthal M, Petrylak DP, Jr IMT, et al. Overall Survival of Black and White Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Treated with Docetaxel. J Clin Oncol 2019;37:403-10.

Ref. 632. Schmidt B, Agarwal N. Black Men Receiving Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer Have Improved Outcomes— Clinical Trial Access or Racial Advantage? JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2140692.

Ref. 633. National Public Radio. Delaware Is Shrinking Racial Gaps in Cancer Death. Its Secret? Patient Navigators. [updated March 7, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­is-shrinking-racial-gaps-in-cancer-death-its-secret-patient­navigators

Ref. 634. Hu B, Boselli D, Pye LM, Chen T, Bose R, Symanowski JT, et al. Equal Access to Care and Nurse Navigation Leads to Equitable Outcomes for Minorities with Aggressive Large B-Cell Lymphoma. Cancer 2021;127:3991-7.

Ref. 635. The Lancet O. Racial Disparities in Cancer Care: Can We Close the Gap? Lancet Oncol 2021;22:1643.

Ref. 636. National Cancer Institute. Black Patients Are More Likely to Die of Cancer – Here’s How One Group Is Tackling That. [updated December 21, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­white-cancer-disparities-survival-accure

Ref. 637. Cykert S, Eng E, Manning MA, Robertson LB, Heron DE, Jones NS, et al. A Multi-Faceted Intervention Aimed at Black-White Disparities in the Treatment of Early Stage Cancers: The Accure Pragmatic Quality Improvement Trial. J Natl Med Assoc 2020;112:468-77.

Ref. 638. Charlot M, Stein JN, Damone E, Wood I, Forster M, Baker S, et al. Effect of an Antiracism Intervention on Racial Disparities in Time to Lung Cancer Surgery. J Clin Oncol 2022;40(16):1755-1762.

Ref. 639. De B, Fu S, Chen YS, Das P, Ku K, Maroongroge S, et al. Patient, Physician, and Policy Factors Underlying Variation in Use of Telemedicine for Radiation Oncology Cancer Care. Cancer Med 2022;(10):2096-2105.

Ref. 640. Tam S, Wu VF, Williams AM, Girgis M, Sheqwara JZ, Siddiqui F, et al. Disparities in the Uptake of Telemedicine During the COVID-19 Surge in a Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Cancer Population by Patient Demographic Characteristics and Socioeconomic Status. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery 2021;147:209-11.

Ref. 641. McKinsey & Company. Telehealth: A Quarter-Trillion-Dollar Post-Covid-19 Reality? [updated July 9, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­systems-and-services/our-insights/telehealth-a-quarter-trillion­dollar-post-covid-19-reality

Ref. 642. Giaquinto AN, Miller KD, Tossas KY, Winn RA, Jemal A, Siegel RL. Cancer Statistics for African American/Black People 2022. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2022.

Ref. 643. Smith BD, Smith GL, Hurria A, Hortobagyi GN, Buchholz TA. Future of Cancer Incidence in the United States: Burdens Upon an Aging, Changing Nation. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:2758-65.

Ref. 644. Lee Smith J, Hall IJ. Advancing Health Equity in Cancer Survivorship: Opportunities for Public Health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2015;49:S477-S82.

Ref. 645. Nguyen J, Napalkov P, Richie N, Arndorfer S, Zivkovic M, Surinach A. Impact of US Population Demographic Changes on Projected Incident Cancer Cases from 2019 to 2045 in Three Major Cancer Types. J Clin Oncol 2020;38:e19044.

Ref. 646. The Chance That Two People Chosen at Random Are of Different Race or Ethnicity Groups Has Increased since 2010. [updated April 22, 2022, cited Available from:­racially-ethnically-diverse-than-2010.html

Ref. 647. Wu H-S, Harden JK. Symptom Burden and Quality of Life in Survivorship: A Review of the Literature. Cancer Nursing 2015;38(1):E29-54.

Ref. 648. Meernik C, Engel SM, Wardell A, Baggett CD, Gupta P, Rodriguez-Ormaza N, et al. Disparities in Fertility Preservation Use among Adolescent and Young Adult Women with Cancer. J Cancer Surviv 2022.

Ref. 649. Madison AA, Peng J, Shrout MR, Renna ME, Alfano CM, Povoski SP, et al. Distress Trajectories in Black and White Breast Cancer Survivors: From Diagnosis to Survivorship. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021;131:105288.

Ref. 650. Chang DW, Suami H, Skoracki R. A Prospective Analysis of 100 Consecutive Lymphovenous Bypass Cases for Treatment of Extremity Lymphedema. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2013;133(6):887e-888e.

References 651-700

Ref. 651. Yoshida Y, Schmaltz CL, Jackson-Thompson J, Simoes EJ. The Effect of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cancer Mortality among Blacks and Whites. Translational Cancer Research 2019:S389-S96.

Ref. 652. Yao Yuan MT, and Avonne E. Connor. The Effects of Social and Behavioral Determinants of Health on the Relationship between Race and Health Status in U.S. Breast Cancer Survivors. Journal of Women’s Health 2019;28:1632-9.

Ref. 653. Noyd DH, Yasui Y, Li N, Chow EJ, Bhatia S, Landstrom A, et al. Disparities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors by Race/Ethnicity among Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivorship Study (CCSS). J Clin Oncol 2021;39:10017.

Ref. 654. Yuan Y, Taneja M, Connor AE. The Effects of Social and Behavioral Determinants of Health on the Relationship between Race and Health Status in U.S. Breast Cancer Survivors. Journal of Women’s Health 2018;28:1632-9.

Ref. 655. Williams MS, Beech BM, Griffith DM, Jr. Thorpe RJ. The Association between Hypertension and Race/Ethnicity among Breast Cancer Survivors. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 2020;7:1172-7.

Ref. 656. Manz CR, Schrag D. Racial Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Recurrence and Mortality: Equitable Care, Inequitable Outcomes? JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2021;113:656-7.

Ref. 657. Kabat GC, Ginsberg M, Sparano JA, Rohan TE. Risk of Recurrence and Mortality in a Multi-Ethnic Breast Cancer Population. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 2017;4:1181-8.

Ref. 658. Calip GS, Law EH, Ko NY. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Risk of Second Primary Cancers among Breast Cancer Survivors. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2015;151:687-96.

Ref. 659. Lindström L. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Rates of Invasive Secondary Breast Cancer among Women with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ in Hawai‘i. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2130925.

Ref. 660. Scott LC, Yang Q, Dowling NF, Richardson LC. Predicted Heart Age among Cancer Survivors – United States, 2013-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1-6.

Ref. 661. Datta T, Brunson A, Mahajan A, Keegan TH, Wun T. Racial Disparities in Cancer-Associated Thrombosis. Blood Adv 2022;6:3167–3177.

Ref. 662. Ohman RE, Yang EH, Abel ML. Inequity in Cardio-Oncology: Identifying Disparities in Cardiotoxicity and Links to Cardiac and Cancer Outcomes. Journal of the American Heart Association 2021;10:e023852.

Ref. 663. Collin LJ, Troeschel AN, Liu Y, Gogineni K, Borger K, Ward KC, et al. A Balancing Act: Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality among Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer. Annals of Cancer Epidemiology 2020;4.

Ref. 664. Stoltzfus KC, Zhang Y, Sturgeon K, Sinoway LI, Trifiletti DM, Chinchilli VM, et al. Fatal Heart Disease among Cancer Patients. Nature communications 2020;11:2011.

Ref. 665. Troeschel AN, Liu Y, Collin LJ, Bradshaw PT, Ward KC, Gogineni K, et al. Race Differences in Cardiovascular Disease and Breast Cancer Mortality among US Women Diagnosed with Invasive Breast Cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology 2019;48:1897-905.

Ref. 666. Hershman DL, Accordino MK, Shen S, Buono D, Crew KD, Kalinsky K, et al. Association between Nonadherence to Cardiovascular Risk Factor Medications after Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Incidence of Cardiac Events. Cancer 2020;126:1541-9.

Ref. 667. Lambertini M, Del Mastro L, Pescio MC, Andersen CY, Azim HA, Jr., Peccatori FA, et al. Cancer and Fertility Preservation: International Recommendations from an Expert Meeting. BMC Med 2016;14:1.

Ref. 668. Pinelli S, Basile S. Fertility Preservation: Current and Future Perspectives for Oncologic Patients at Risk for Iatrogenic Premature Ovarian Insufficiency. BioMed Research International 2018;2018:6465903.

Ref. 669. Patel P, Kohn TP, Cohen J, Shiff B, Kohn J, Ramasamy R. Evaluation of Reported Fertility Preservation Counseling before Chemotherapy Using the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Survey. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e2010806.

Ref. 670. Voigt P, Persily J, Blakemore JK, Licciardi F, Thakker S, Najari B. Sociodemographic Differences in Utilization of Fertility Services among Reproductive Age Women Diagnosed with Cancer in the USA. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2022;39:963-972.

Ref. 671. Coccia PF, Pappo AS, Beaupin L, Borges VF, Borinstein SC, Chugh R, et al. Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology, Version 2.2018, Nccn Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018;16:66-97.

Ref. 672. Alliance for Fertility Preservation. State Laws & Legislation. [updated March 28, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 673. Zhang X, McLaughlin EM, Krok-Schoen JL, Naughton M, Bernardo BM, Cheville A, et al. Association of Lower Extremity Lymphedema with Physical Functioning and Activities of Daily Living among Older Survivors of Colorectal, Endometrial, and Ovarian Cancer. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5:e221671.

Ref. 674. Hayes SC, Janda M, Cornish B, Battistutta D, Newman B. Lymphedema after Breast Cancer: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Effect on Upper Body Function. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:3536-42.

Ref. 675. Armer JM, Ballman KV, McCall L, Ostby PL, Zagar E, Kuerer HM, et al. Factors Associated with Lymphedema in Women with Node-Positive Breast Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Axillary Dissection. JAMA Surgery 2019;154:800-9.

Ref. 676. Kwan ML, Yao S, Lee VS, Roh JM, Zhu Q, Ergas IJ, et al. Race/Ethnicity, Genetic Ancestry, and Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema in the Pathways Study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2016;159:119-29.

Ref. 677. Barrio AV, Montagna G, Sevilimedu V, Gomez EA, Mehrara B, Morrow M. Abstract Gs4-01: Impact of Race and Ethnicity on Incidence and Severity of Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema after Axillary Lymph Node Dissection: Results of a Prospective Screening Study. Cancer Research 2022;82:GS4-01.

Ref. 678. Porter KJ, Moon KE, LeBaron VT, Zoellner JM. A Novel Behavioral Intervention for Rural Appalachian Cancer Survivors (Wesurvive): Participatory Development and Proof-of-Concept Testing. JMIR Cancer 2021;7:e26010.

Ref. 679. Robinson JRM, Beebe-Dimmer JL, Schwartz AG, Ruterbusch JJ, Baird TE, Pandolfi SS, et al. Neighborhood Walkability and Body Mass Index in African American Cancer Survivors: The Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study. Cancer 2021;127:4687-93.

Ref. 680. Owusu C, Margevicius S, Nock NL, Austin K, Bennet E, Cerne S, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effect of Supervised Exercise on Functional Outcomes in Older African American and Non-Hispanic White Breast Cancer Survivors: Are There Racial Differences in the Effects of Exercise on Functional Outcomes? Cancer 2022.

Ref. 681. Conderino SE, Feldman JM, Spoer B, Gourevitch MN, Thorpe LE. Social and Economic Differences in Neighborhood Walkability across 500 U.S. Cities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2021;61:394-401.

Ref. 682. Oh H-JS, Menéndez ÁF, Santos VS, Martínez ÁR, Ribeiro FF, Vilanova-Trillo L, et al. Evaluating Health Related Quality of Life in Outpatients Receiving Anti-Cancer Treatment: Results from an Observational, Cross-Sectional Study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2021;19:245.

Ref. 683. Bottomley A, Pe M, Sloan J, Basch E, Bonnetain F, Calvert M, et al. Moving Forward toward Standardizing Analysis of Quality of Life Data in Randomized Cancer Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials 2018;15:624-30.

Ref. 684. Mierzynska J, Piccinin C, Pe M, Martinelli F, Gotay C, Coens C, et al. Prognostic Value of Patient-Reported Outcomes from International Randomised Clinical Trials on Cancer: A Systematic Review. Lancet Oncol 2019;20:e685-e98.

Ref. 685. Efficace F, Collins GS, Cottone F, Giesinger JM, Sommer K, Anota A, et al. Patient-Reported Outcomes as Independent Prognostic Factors for Survival in Oncology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Value in Health 2021;24:250-67.

Ref. 686. Sitlinger A, Zafar SY. Health-Related Quality of Life: The Impact on Morbidity and Mortality. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2018;27:675-84.

Ref. 687. Park J, Rodriguez JL, O’Brien KM, Nichols HB, Hodgson ME, Weinberg CR, et al. Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes among Breast Cancer Survivors. Cancer 2021;127:1114-25.

Ref. 688. Eichler M, Singer S, Hentschel L, Richter S, Hohenberger P, Kasper B, et al. The Association of Health-Related Quality of Life and 1-Year-Survival in Sarcoma Patients—Results of a Nationwide Observational Study (Prosa). Br J Can 2022;126:1346–1354.

Ref. 689. Schefter A, Thomaier L, Jewett P, Brown K, Stenzel AE, Blaes A, et al. Cross-Sectional Study of Psychosocial Well-Being among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Gynecologic CancerSurvivors. Cancer Reports 2022;5:e1461.

Ref. 690. Megan L. Hutchcraft AAT, Lauren Montemorano, and Joanne G. Patterson. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors among Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Women Surviving Cancer from the 2013 to 2018 National Health Interview Survey. LGBT Health 2021;8:68-78.

Ref. 691. Hart TL, Coon DW, Kowalkowski MA, Zhang K, Hersom JI, Goltz HH, et al. Changes in Sexual Roles and Quality of Life for Gay Men after Prostate Cancer: Challenges for Sexual Health Providers. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2014;11:2308-17.

Ref. 692. Boehmer U, Jesdale BM, Streed Jr CG, Agénor M. Intersectionality and Cancer Survivorship: Sexual Orientation and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Physical and Mental Health Outcomes among Female and Male Cancer Survivors. Cancer 2022;128:284-91.

Ref. 693. Griggs J, Maingi S, Blinder V, Denduluri N, Khorana AA, Norton L, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology Position Statement: Strategies for Reducing Cancer Health Disparities among Sexual and Gender Minority Populations. J Clin Oncol 2017;35:2203-8.

Ref. 694. National Institutes of Health – Sexual & Gender Minority Research Office. About SGMRO. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 695. Samuel CA, Pinheiro LC, Reeder-Hayes KE, Walker JS, Corbie-Smith G, Fashaw SA, et al. To Be Young, Black, and Living with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Health-Related Quality of Life in Young Black Breast Cancer Survivors. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2016;160:1-15.

Ref. 696. Pinheiro LC, Wheeler SB, Chen RC, Mayer DK, Lyons JC, Reeve BB. The Effects of Cancer and Racial Disparities in Health-Related Quality of Life among Older Americans: A Case-Control, Population-Based Study. Cancer 2015;121:1312-20.

Ref. 697. Claridy MD, Ansa B, Damus F, Alema-Mensah E, Smith SA. Health-Related Quality of Life of African-American Female Breast Cancer Survivors, Survivors of Other Cancers, and Those without Cancer. Quality of Life Research 2018;27:2067-75.

Ref. 698. Matthews AK, Tejeda S, Johnson TP, Berbaum ML, Manfredi C. Correlates of Quality of Life among African American and White Cancer Survivors. Cancer Nursing 2012;35:355-64.

Ref. 699. Dickey SL, Matthews C, Millender E. An Exploration of Precancer and Post-Cancer Diagnosis and Health Communication among African American Prostate Cancer Survivors and Their Families. American Journal of Men’s Health 2020;14:1557988320927202.

Ref. 700. Bai J, Brubaker A, Meghani SH, Bruner DW, Yeager KA. Spirituality and Quality of Life in Black Patients with Cancer Pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2018;56:390-8.

References 701-750

Ref. 701. National Institutes of Health. Nci Launces Study of African-American Cancer Survivors. [updated February 27, 2017, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­releases/nci-launches-study-african-american-cancer-survivors

Ref. 702. Samuel CA, Mbah OM, Elkins W, Pinheiro LC, Szymeczek MA, Padilla N, et al. Calidad De Vida: A Systematic Review of Quality of Life in Latino Cancer Survivors in the USA. Quality of Life Research 2020;29:2615-30.

Ref. 703. Graves KD, Jensen RE, Cañar J, Perret-Gentil M, Leventhal K-G, Gonzalez F, et al. Through the Lens of Culture: Quality of Life among Latina Breast Cancer Survivors. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2012;136:603-13.

Ref. 704. McNulty J, Kim S, Thurston T, Kim J, Larkey L. Interventions to Improve Quality of Life, Well Being and Cancer Care in Hispanic/Latino Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Literature Review. Oncology Nursing Forum 2016;43.

Ref. 705. Ramirez AG, Gallion KJ, Perez A, Munoz E, Long Parma D, Moreno PI, et al. Improving Quality of Life among Latino Cancer Survivors: Design of a Randomized Trial of Patient Navigation. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2019;76:41-8.

Ref. 706. Acebedo JC, Haas BK, Hermanns M. Breast Cancer–Related Lymphedema in Hispanic Women: A Phenomenological Study. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 2019;32:41-9.

Ref. 707. Gany F, Leng J, Ramirez J, Phillips S, Aragones A, Roberts N, et al. Health-Related Quality of Life of Food-Insecure Ethnic Minority Patients with Cancer. Journal of oncology practice 2015;11:396-402.

Ref. 708. McDougall JA, Anderson J, Adler Jaffe S, Guest DD, Sussman AL, Meisner ALW, et al. Food Insecurity and Forgone Medical Care among Cancer Survivors. JCO Oncol Pract 2020;16:e922-e32.

Ref. 709. University of Texas Health. New $9.8 Million Study Is the 1st to Seek Full Understanding of the Latino Cancer Survivorship Journey. [updated May 4, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­understanding-of-the-latino-cancer-survivorship-journey/

Ref. 710. Bastian TD, Burhansstipanov L. Sharing Wisdom, Sharing Hope: Strategies Used by Native American Cancer Survivors to Restore Quality of Life. JCO Global Oncology 2020:161-6.

Ref. 711. Burhansstipanov L, Dignan M, Jones KL, Krebs LU, Marchionda P, Kaur JS. A Comparison of Quality of Life between Native and Non-Native Cancer Survivors. Journal of Cancer Education 2012;27:106-13.

Ref. 712. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship: Native American Priorities. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 713. Burhansstipanov L, Krebs LU, Seals BF, Bradley AA, Kaur JS, Iron P, et al. Native American Breast Cancer Survivors’ Physical Conditions and Quality of Life. Cancer 2010;116:1560-71.

Ref. 714. Petereit D, Guadagnolo B, Wong R, Coleman C. Addressing Cancer Disparities among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience. Frontiers in Oncology 2011;1.

Ref. 715. Radbruch L, De Lima L, Knaul F, Wenk R, Ali Z, Bhatnaghar S, et al. Redefining Palliative Care—a New Consensus-Based Definition. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2020;60:754-64.

Ref. 716. Elk R, Felder TM, Cayir E, Samuel CA. Social Inequalities in Palliative Care for Cancer Patients in the United States: A Structured Review. Seminars in Oncology Nursing 2018;34:303-15.

Ref. 717. Haviland K, Burrows Walters C, Newman S. Barriers to Palliative Care in Sexual and Gender Minority Patients with Cancer: A Scoping Review of the Literature. Health & Social Care in the Community 2021;29:305-18.

Ref. 718. Bakitas MA, Elk R, Astin M, Ceronsky L, Clifford KN, Dionne-Odom JN, et al. Systematic Review of Palliative Care in the Rural Setting. Cancer Control 2015;22:450-64.

Ref. 719. Cancer Network. Challenges of Rural Cancer Care in the United States. [updated September 15, 2015, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­rural-cancer-care-united-states

Ref. 720. Polite BN, Adams-Campbell LL, Brawley OW, Bickell N, Carethers JM, Flowers CR, et al. Charting the Future of Cancer Health Disparities Research: A Position Statement from the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2017;67:353-61.

Ref. 721. Fossum CC, Navarro S, Farias AJ, Ballas LK. Racial Disparities in the Use of Palliative Radiotherapy for Black Patients with Multiple Myeloma in the United States. Leukemia & Lymphoma 2021;62:3235-43.

Ref. 722. Bickel KE, McNiff K, Buss MK, Kamal A, Lupu D, Abernethy AP, et al. Defining High-Quality Palliative Care in Oncology Practice: An American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine Guidance Statement. Journal of Oncology Practice 2016;12:e828-e38.

Ref. 723. Ferrell BR, Temel JS, Temin S, Alesi ER, Balboni TA, Basch EM, et al. Integration of Palliative Care into Standard Oncology Care: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update. J Clin Oncol 2017;35:96-112.

Ref. 724. Deeb S, Chino FL, Diamond LC, Tao A, Aragones A, Shahrokni A, et al. Disparities in Care Management During Terminal Hospitalization among Adults with Metastatic Cancer from 2010 to 2017. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2125328-e.

Ref. 725. National Cancer Institute. Cancer in Children and Adolescents. [updated November 10, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­adolescent-cancers-fact-sheet

Ref. 726. Erdmann F, Frederiksen LE, Bonaventure A, Mader L, Hasle H, Robison LL, et al. Childhood Cancer: Survival, Treatment Modalities, Late Effects and Improvements over Time. Cancer Epidemiology 2021;71:101733.

Ref. 727. Gibson TM, Mostoufi-Moab S, Stratton KL, Leisenring WM, Barnea D, Chow EJ, et al. Temporal Patterns in the Risk of Chronic Health Conditions in Survivors of Childhood Cancer Diagnosed 1970–99: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort. Lancet Oncol 2018;19:1590-601.

Ref. 728. Hudson MM, Ness KK, Gurney JG, Mulrooney DA, Chemaitilly W, Krull KR, et al. Clinical Ascertainment of Health Outcomes among Adults Treated for Childhood Cancer. Jama 2013;309:2371-81.

Ref. 729. Bhakta N, Liu Q, Yeo F, Baassiri M, Ehrhardt MJ, Srivastava DK, et al. Cumulative Burden of Cardiovascular Morbidity in Paediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: An Analysis from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Lancet Oncol 2016;17:1325-34.

Ref. 730. Liu Q, Leisenring WM, Ness KK, Robison LL, Armstrong GT, Yasui Y, et al. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adverse Outcomes among Childhood Cancer Survivors: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:1634-43.

Ref. 731. Dixon SB, Li N, Yasui Y, Bhatia S, Casillas JN, Gibson TM, et al. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Neurocognitive, Emotional, and Quality-of-Life Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 2019;125:3666-77.

Ref. 732. Castellino SM, Casillas J, Hudson MM, Mertens AC, Whitton J, Brooks SL, et al. Minority Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes, Health Care Utilization, and Health-Related Behaviors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:6499-507.

Ref. 733. Kadan-Lottick NS, Robison LL, Gurney JG, Neglia JP, Yasui Y, Hayashi R, et al. Childhood Cancer Survivors’ Knowledge About Their Past Diagnosis and Treatmentchildhood Cancer Survivor Study. JAMA 2002;287:1832-9.

Ref. 734. Donovan KA, Knight D, Quinn GP. Palliative Care in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer. Cancer Control 2015;22:475-9.

Ref. 735. Avery J, Geist A, D’Agostino NM, Kawaguchi SK, Mahtani R, Mazzotta P, et al. “It’s More Difficult…”: Clinicians’ Experience Providing Palliative Care to Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed with Advanced Cancer. JCO Oncology Practice 2020;16:e100-e8.

Ref. 736. Johnston EE, Alvarez E, Saynina O, Sanders L, Bhatia S, Chamberlain LJ. End-of-Life Intensity for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: A Californian Population-Based Study That Shows Disparities. Journal of Oncology Practice 2017;13:e770-e81.

Ref. 737. Johnston EE, Bogetz J, Saynina O, Chamberlain LJ, Bhatia S, Sanders L. Disparities in Inpatient Intensity of End-of-Life Care for Complex Chronic Conditions. Pediatrics 2019;143.

Ref. 738. Ghazal LV, Gormley M, Merriman JD, Santacroce SJ. Financial Toxicity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: A Concept Analysis. Cancer Nursing 2021;44:E636-E51.

Ref. 739. Parsons HM, Schmidt S, Harlan LC, Kent EE, Lynch CF, Smith AW, et al. Young and Uninsured: Insurance Patterns of Recently Diagnosed Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors in the Aya Hope Study. Cancer 2014;120:2352-60.

Ref. 740. Meernik C, Kirchhoff AC, Anderson C, Edwards TP, Deal AM, Baggett CD, et al. Material and Psychological Financial Hardship Related to Employment Disruption among Female Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors. Cancer 2021;127:137-48.

Ref. 741. Murphy CC, Lupo PJ, Roth ME, Winick NJ, Pruitt SL. Disparities in Cancer Survival among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Population-Based Study of 88 000 Patients. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2021;113:1074-83.

Ref. 742. Ashing KT, George M, Jones V. Health-Related Quality of Life and Care Satisfaction Outcomes: Informing Psychosocial Oncology Care among Latina and African-American Young Breast Cancer Survivors. Psycho-Oncology 2018;27:1213-20.

Ref. 743. Bernard DSM, Farr SL, Fang Z. National Estimates of out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Burdens among Nonelderly Adults with Cancer: 2001 to 2008. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:2821-6.

Ref. 744. Altice CK, Banegas MP, Tucker-Seeley RD, Yabroff KR. Financial Hardships Experienced by Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2016;109.

Ref. 745. de Souza JA, Yap BJ, Wroblewski K, Blinder V, Araújo FS, Hlubocky FJ, et al. Measuring Financial Toxicity as a Clinically Relevant Patient-Reported Outcome: The Validation of the Comprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (Cost). Cancer 2017;123:476-84.

Ref. 746. Bestvina CM, Zullig LL, Rushing C, Chino F, Samsa GP, Altomare I, et al. Patient-Oncologist Cost Communication, Financial Distress, and Medication Adherence. Journal of Oncology Practice 2014;10:162-7.

Ref. 747. Doherty M, Gardner D, Finik J. The Financial Coping Strategies of US Cancer Patients and Survivors. Supportive Care in Cancer 2021;29:5753-62.

Ref. 748. Gu C, Jewett PI, Yabroff KR, Vogel RI, Parsons HM, Gangnon RE, et al. Forgoing Physician Visits Due to Cost: Regional Clustering among Cancer Survivors by Age, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity. J Cancer Surviv 2022.

Ref. 749. Bridgette Thom CB. The Impact of Financial Toxicity on Psychological Well-Being, Coping Self-Efficacy, and Cost-Coping Behaviors in Young Adults with Cancer. Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology 2019;8:236-42.

Ref. 750. Ramsey SD, Bansal A, Fedorenko CR, Blough DK, Overstreet KA, Shankaran V, et al. Financial Insolvency as a Risk Factor for Early Mortality among Patients with Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:980-6.

References 751-800

Ref. 751. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. High-Deductible Health Plan Enrollment among Adults Aged 18–64 with Employment-Based Insurance Coverage. [updated August 9, 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 752. Yousuf Zafar S. Financial Toxicity of Cancer Care: It’s Time to Intervene. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2015;108.

Ref. 753. Meernik C, Sandler DP, Peipins LA, Hodgson ME, Blinder VS, Wheeler SB, et al. Breast Cancer–Related Employment Disruption and Financial Hardship in the Sister Study. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 2021;5.

Ref. 754. Hallgren E, Ayers BL, Moore R, Purvis RS, McElfish PA, Maraboyina S, et al. Facilitators and Barriers to Employment for Rural Women Cancer Survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2022 Feb 10.

Ref. 755. Mols F, Tomalin B, Pearce A, Kaambwa B, Koczwara B. Financial Toxicity and Employment Status in Cancer Survivors. A Systematic Literature Review. Supportive Care in Cancer 2020;28:5693-708.

Ref. 756. Chino F, Zafar SY. Financial Toxicity and Equitable Access to Clinical Trials. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book 2019:11-8.

Ref. 757. Winkfield KM, Phillips JK, Joffe S, Halpern MT, Wollins DS, Moy B. Addressing Financial Barriers to Patient Participation in Clinical Trials: ASCO Policy Statement. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:3331-9.

Ref. 758. Milliman. A Multi-Year Look at the Cost Burden of Cancer Care. [updated April 10, 2017, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­the-cost-burden-of-cancer-care

Ref. 759. Jagsi R, Pottow JAE, Griffith KA, Bradley C, Hamilton AS, Graff J, et al. Long-Term Financial Burden of Breast Cancer: Experiences of a Diverse Cohort of Survivors Identified through Population-Based Registries. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:1269-76.

Ref. 760. Wheeler SB, Spencer JC, Pinheiro LC, Carey LA, Olshan AF, Reeder-Hayes KE. Financial Impact of Breast Cancer in Black Versus White Women. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:1695-701.

Ref. 761. Shah K, Zafar SY, Chino F. Role of Financial Toxicity in Perpetuating Health Disparities. Trends in Cancer 2022;8:266-8.

Ref. 762. Pisu M, Kenzik KM, Oster RA, Drentea P, Ashing KT, Fouad M, et al. Economic Hardship of Minority and Non-Minority Cancer Survivors 1 Year after Diagnosis: Another Long-Term Effect of Cancer? Cancer 2015;121:1257-64.

Ref. 763. Vanderpool RC, Chen Q, Johnson MF, Lei F, Stradtman LR, Huang B. Financial Distress among Cancer Survivors in Appalachian Kentucky. Cancer Reports 2020;3:e1221.

Ref. 764. Li C, Narcisse M-R, McElfish PA. Medical Financial Hardship Reported by Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Cancer Survivors Compared with Non-Hispanic Whites. Cancer 2020;126:2900-14.

Ref. 765. Panzone J, Welch C, Morgans A, Bhanvadia SK, Mossanen M, Shenhav-Goldberg R, et al. Association of Race with Cancer-Related Financial Toxicity. JCO Oncology Practice 2022;18:e271-e83.

Ref. 766. Lent AB, Garrido CO, Baird EH, Viela R, Harris RB. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Life Insurance Denial Due to Cancer among Cancer Survivors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022;19:2166.

Ref. 767. Shi T, Jiang C, Zhu C, Wu F, Fotjhadi I, Zarich S. Insurance Disparity in Cardiovascular Mortality among Non-Elderly Cancer Survivors. Cardio-Oncology 2021;7:11.

Ref. 768. DeSantis CE, Lin CC, Mariotto AB, Siegel RL, Stein KD, Kramer JL, et al. Cancer Treatment and Survivorship Statistics, 2014. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2014;64:252-71.

Ref. 769. Plate S, Emilsson L, Söderberg M, Brandberg Y, Wärnberg F. High Experienced Continuity in Breast Cancer Care Is Associated with High Health Related Quality of Life. BMC Health Services Research 2018;18:127.

Ref. 770. Chen Y-Y, Hsieh C-I, Chung K-P. Continuity of Care, Follow­up Care, and Outcomes among Breast Cancer Survivors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019;16:3050.

Ref. 771. Aubin M, Vézina L, Verreault R, Simard S, Hudon É, Desbiens J-F, et al. Continuity of Cancer Care and Collaboration between Family Physicians and Oncologists: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial. The Annals of Family Medicine 2021;19:117.

Ref. 772. Chhatre S, Malkowicz SB, Jayadevappa R. Continuity of Care in Acute Survivorship Phase, and Short and Long-Term Outcomes in Prostate Cancer Patients. The Prostate 2021;81:1310-9.

Ref. 773. Malhotra J, Paddock LE, Lin Y, Pine SR, Habib MH, Stroup A, et al. Racial Disparities in Follow-up Care of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Survivors. J Cancer Surviv 2022 Mar 22.

Ref. 774. Milam JE, Meeske K, Slaughter RI, Sherman-Bien S, Ritt-Olson A, Kuperberg A, et al. Cancer-Related Follow-up Care among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Childhood Cancer Survivors: The Project Forward Study. Cancer 2015;121:605-13.

Ref. 775. Rosales M, Ashing K, Napoles A. Quality of Cancer Follow-up Care: A Focus on Latina Breast Cancer Survivors. Journal of Cancer Survivorship 2014;8:364-71.

Ref. 776. Jiang C, Yabroff KR, Deng L, Wang Q, Perimbeti S, Shapiro CL, et al. Self-Reported Transportation Barriers to Health Care among US Cancer Survivors. JAMA Oncol 2022;8:775-778.

Ref. 777. Palmer NRA, Weaver KE, Hauser SP, Lawrence JA, Talton J, Case LD, et al. Disparities in Barriers to Follow-up Care between African American and White Breast Cancer Survivors. Supportive Care in Cancer 2015;23:3201-9.

Ref. 778. Bober SL, Recklitis CJ, Campbell EG, Park ER, Kutner JS, Najita JS, et al. Caring for Cancer Survivors. Cancer 2009;115:4409-18.

Ref. 779. Schootman M, Homan S, Weaver KE, Jeffe DB, Yun S. The Health and Welfare of Rural and Urban Cancer Survivors in Missouri. Preventing Chronic Disease 2013;10:E152.

Ref. 780. Blanch-Hartigan D, Forsythe LP, Alfano CM, Smith T, Nekhlyudov L, Ganz PA, et al. Provision and Discussion of Survivorship Care Plans among Cancer Survivors: Results of a Nationally Representative Survey of Oncologists and Primary Care Physicians. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:1578-85.

Ref. 781. ASCO. Asco Announces New Program Designed to Increase Workforce Diversity and Reduce Cancer Care Disparities. Journal of Oncology Practice 2009;5:315-7.

Ref. 782. Kuderer NM, Choueiri TK, Shah DP, Shyr Y, Rubinstein SM, Rivera DR, et al. Clinical Impact of COVID-19 on Patients with Cancer (Ccc19): A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2020;395:1907-18.

Ref. 783. Zhao F, Henderson TO, Cipriano TM, Copley BL, Liu M, Burra R, et al. The Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 on the Quality of Life and Treatment Disruption of Patients with Breast Cancer in a Multiethnic Cohort. Cancer 2021;127:4072-80.

Ref. 784. Ciazynska M, Pabianek M, Szczepaniak K, Ulanska M, Skibinska M, Owczarek W, et al. Quality of Life of Cancer Patients During Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. Psycho-Oncology 2020;29:1377-9.

Ref. 785. Koinig KA, Arnold C, Lehmann J, Giesinger J, Köck S, Willenbacher W, et al. The Cancer Patient’s Perspective of COVID-19-Induced Distress—a Cross-Sectional Study and a Longitudinal Comparison of Hrqol Assessed before and During the Pandemic. Cancer Medicine 2021;10:3928-37.

Ref. 786. Katz AJ, Haynes K, Du S, Barron J, Kubik R, Chen RC. Evaluation of Telemedicine Use among US Patients with Newly Diagnosed Cancer by Socioeconomic Status. JAMA Oncol 2022;8:161-3.

Ref. 787. Jewett PI, Vogel RI, Ghebre R, Hui JYC, Parsons HM, Rao A, et al. Telehealth in Cancer Care During COVID-19: Disparities by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Residential Status. Journal of Cancer Survivorship 2022;16:44-51.

Ref. 788. Kline RM, Rocque GB, Rohan EA, Blackley KA, Cantril CA, Pratt-Chapman ML, et al. Patient Navigation in Cancer: The Business Case to Support Clinical Needs. Journal of Oncology Practice 2019;15:585-90.

Ref. 789. Dixit N, Rugo H, Burke NJ. Navigating a Path to Equity in Cancer Care: The Role of Patient Navigation. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book 2021:3-10.

Ref. 790. The Cancer Center Cessation Initiative Diversity E, and Inclusion Working Group Members. Use of Community Health Workers and Patient Navigators to Improve Cancer Outcomes among Patients Served by Federally Qualified Health Centers: A Systematic Literature Review. Health Equity 2017;1:61-76.

Ref. 791. Oluwole SF, Ali AO, Adu A, Blane BP, Barlow B, Oropeza R, et al. Impact of a Cancer Screening Program on Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis in a Medically Underserved Urban Community. J Am Coll Surg 2003;196:180-8.

Ref. 792. Freeman HP. Patient Navigation: A Community Based Strategy to Reduce Cancer Disparities. Journal of Urban Health 2006;83:139-41.

Ref. 793. Ustjanauskas AE, Bredice M, Nuhaily S, Kath L, Wells KJ. Training in Patient Navigation:A Review of the Research Literature. Health Promotion Practice 2016;17:373-81.

Ref. 794. Pratt-Chapman M, Willis A. Community Cancer Center Administration and Support for Navigation Services. Seminars in Oncology Nursing 2013;29:141-8.

Ref. 795. Walls M, Chambers R, Begay M, Masten K, Aulandez K, Richards J, et al. Centering the Strengths of American Indian Culture, Families and Communities to Overcome Type 2 Diabetes. Frontiers in Public Health 2022;9:788285.

Ref. 796. Salsberg E, Richwine C, Westergaard S, Portela Martinez M, Oyeyemi T, Vichare A, et al. Estimation and Comparison of Current and Future Racial/Ethnic Representation in the US Health Care Workforce. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e213789.

Ref. 797. Westring AF, Sammel MD, Speck RM, Tuton LW, Grisso JA, Abbuhl SB. Career Trajectories of Women from Underrepresented Minority Groups at an Academic Medical Center. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e212723-e.

Ref. 798. Lang JJ, Issa R, Lombardi C, Garcia E, Oke OC, Ekwenna O. Trends in Race and Ethnicity among Matriculants to US Oncology Training Programs, 2015-2020. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2128530-e.

Ref. 799. Wilbur K, Snyder C, Essary AC, Reddy S, Will KK, Mary S. Developing Workforce Diversity in the Health Professions: A Social Justice Perspective. Health Professions Education 2020;6:222-9.

Ref. 800. The White House. Government-Wide Strategic Plan to Advance Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Federal Workforce. [updated November 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

References 801-850

Ref. 801. Gomez LE, Bernet P. Diversity Improves Performance and Outcomes. Journal of the National Medical Association 2019;111:383-92.

Ref. 802. Cooper-Patrick L, Gallo JJ, Gonzales JJ, Vu HT, Powe NR, Nelson C, et al. Race, Gender, and Partnership in the Patient-Physician Relationship. JAMA 1999;282:583-9.

Ref. 803. Capers Q, Johnson A, Berlacher K, Douglas P. The Urgent and Ongoing Need for Diversity, Inclusion, and Equity in the Cardiology Workforce in the United States. Journal of the American Heart Association 2021;10.

Ref. 804. Nazha B, Mishra M, Pentz R, Owonikoko TK. Enrollment of Racial Minorities in Clinical Trials: Old Problem Assumes New Urgency in the Age of Immunotherapy. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book 2019:3-10.

Ref. 805. Charlot M, Santana MC, Chen CA, Bak S, Heeren TC, Battaglia TA, et al. Impact of Patient and Navigator Race and Language Concordance on Care after Cancer Screening Abnormalities. Cancer 2015;121:1477-83.

Ref. 806. Valantine HA, Lund PK, Gammie AE. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce. CBE Life Sci Educ 2016;15:fe4.

Ref. 807. Kamran SC, Winkfield KM, Reede JY, Vapiwala N. Intersectional Analysis of U.S. Medical Faculty Diversity over Four Decades. New England Journal of Medicine 2022;386:1363-71.

Ref. 808. Morgan PL, Farkas G, Hillemeier MM, Maczuga S. Science Achievement Gaps Begin Very Early, Persist, and Are Largely Explained by Modifiable Factors. Educational Researcher 2016;45:18-35.

Ref. 809. Betancur L, Votruba-Drzal E, Schunn C. Socioeconomic Gaps in Science Achievement. International Journal of STEM Education 2018;5:38.

Ref. 810. Kerr JQ, Hess DJ, Smith CM, Hadfield MG. Recognizing and Reducing Barriers to Science and Math Education and Stem Careers for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. CBE—Life Sciences Education 2018;17:mr1.

Ref. 811. U.S. Commision on Civil Rights. Public Education Funding Inequity in an Era of Increasing Concentration of Poverty and Resegregation. [updated January 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­10-Education-Inequity.pdf

Ref. 812. American University School of Education. Inequality in Public School Funding: Key Issues & Solutions for Closing the Gap. [updated September 10, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­school-funding/

Ref. 813. Lafortune J, Rothstein J, Schanzenbach DW. School Finance Reform and the Distribution of Student Achievement. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2018;10:1-26.

Ref. 814. Institute of Education Sciences – Regional Educational Laboratory Program. Improving High School Graduation Rates for All ­Evidence Blast. [updated November 14, 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 815. Rosenzweig EQ, Hecht CA, Priniski SJ, Canning EA, Asher MW, Tibbetts Y, et al. Inside the Stem Pipeline: Changes in Students’ Biomedical Career Plans across the College Years. Science Advances 2021;7:eabe0985.

Ref. 816. National Institutes of Health. Science Education Partnership Award. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 817. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems. College-Going Rates of High School. [updated cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 818. The Graduate School at Duke University. Director of Uncf/Mellon Program Shares Insights on Recruiting from Hbcus. [updated November 27, 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­shares-insights-recruiting-hbcus

Ref. 819. Carpten JD, Fashoyin-Aje L, Garraway LA, Winn R. Making Cancer Research More Inclusive. Nature Reviews Cancer 2021;21:613-8.

Ref. 820. National Academies of Sciences EM, Affairs PG, Workforce BHE, STEMM CEM, Dahlberg ML, Byars-Winston A. The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM. National Academies Press; 2020.

Ref. 821. National Academies of Sciences E, and Medicine. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Wellbeing in Higher Education: Supporting the Whole Student. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2021.

Ref. 822. Turning Chutes into Ladders for Women Faculty: A Review and Roadmap for Equity in Academia. Journal of Women’s Health 2020;29:721-33.

Ref. 823. National Institutes of Health – NIH Data Book. NIH Data Book – Data by Gender. [updated February 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 824. Sege R, Nykiel-Bub L, Selk S. Sex Differences in Institutional Support for Junior Biomedical Researchers. JAMA 2015;314:1175-7.

Ref. 825. Northeastern University. Do Women Publish Less Than Men in Scientific Fields? Turns out, Scientists Have Been Asking the Wrong Question. [updated March 5, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­scientists-have-been-asking-the-wrong-question/

Ref. 826. Cardel MI, Dhurandhar E, Yarar-Fisher C, Foster M, Hidalgo B, McClure LA, et al. Turning Chutes into Ladders for Women Faculty: A Review and Roadmap for Equity in Academia. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2020;29:721-33.

Ref. 826a. Odedina FT, Stern MC. Role of funders in addressing the continued lack of diversity in science and medicine. Nat Med. 2021;27:1859-1861.

Ref. 828. National Cancer Institute. NCI Mentored Research Scientist Development Award to Promote Diversity (K01). [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 829. National Cancer Institute. Exploratory Grant Award to Promote Workforce Diversity in Basic Cancer Research (R21). [updated June 14, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­disparities/resources/r21-fact-sheet

Ref. 830. National Institutes of Health – Office of Extramural Research. New Nih Administrative Supplements Available to Support Diversity Mentorship. [updated February 9, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­nih-administrative-supplements-available-to-support-diversity­mentorship/

Ref. 831. National Institutes of Health – Office of Extramural Research. What’s New with the NIH Loan Repayment Programs: FY 2022 Applications, Anniversaries, and a New Program. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­repayment-programs-fy-2022-applications-anniversaries-and-a­new-program/

Ref. 832. Yang W, Williams JH, Hogan PF, Bruinooge SS, Rodriguez GI, Kosty MP, et al. Projected Supply of and Demand for Oncologists and Radiation Oncologists through 2025: An Aging, Better-Insured Population Will Result in Shortage. Journal of Oncology Practice 2014;10:39-45.

Ref. 833. ASCO. 2021 Snapshot: State of the Oncology Workforce in America. JCO Oncology Practice 2021;17:249.

Ref. 834. 2020 Snapshot: State of the Oncology Workforce in America. JCO Oncology Practice 2021;17:30.

Ref. 835. Shanafelt TD, Gradishar WJ, Kosty M, Satele D, Chew H, Horn L, et al. Burnout and Career Satisfaction among US Oncologists. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:678-86.

Ref. 836. Association of American Medical Colleges. 2021 – State Physician Worforce Data Report. [updated January 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 837. Bärnighausen T, Bloom DE. Financial Incentives for Return of Service in Underserved Areas: A Systematic Review. BMC Health Services Research 2009;9:86.

Ref. 838. Morgan A, Shah K, Tran K, Chino F. Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Representation in Leadership Positions at National Cancer Institute–Designated Cancer Centers. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2112807.

Ref. 839. Association of American Medical Colleges. 2021 Fall Applicant, Matriculant, and Enrollment Data Tables. [updated December 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 840. Congressional Research Service. Federal Support for Graduate Medical Education: An Overview. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 841. Association of American Medical Colleges. State-by-State Graduate Medical Education Data. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­policy/state-state-graduate-medical-education-data

Ref. 842. HCP Live. Options for Physicians Who Don’t Get Accepted to Residency Programs. [updated December 7, 2016, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­for-physicians-who-dont-get-accepted-to-residency-programs

Ref. 843. The New York Times. ‘I Am Worth It’: Why Thousands of Doctors in America Can’t Get a Job. [updated July 20, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 844. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. CMS Funding 1,000 New Residency Slots for Hospitals Serving Rural & Underserved Communities. [updated December 17, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­underserved-communities

Ref. 845. National Medical Association. About Us – National Medical Association. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 846. American Medical Association. Ama Adopts New Policy to Increase Diversity in Physician Workforce. [updated June 17, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­diversity-physician-workforce

Ref. 847. Kamran SC, Niemierko A, Deville C, Jr, Vapiwala N. Diversity Trends by Sex and Underrepresented in Medicine Status among US Radiation and Medical Oncology Faculty over 5 Decades. JAMA Oncol 2022;8:221-9.

Ref. 848. National Institutes of Health – Office of Extramural Research. Further Demographic Analyses of NIH R01 Grant Outcomes of T32 Postdoctoral Participants – NIH Extramural Nexus. [updated July 27, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­r01-grant-outcomes-of-t32-postdoctoral-participants/

Ref. 849. American Association for Cancer Research. AACR to Partner with the Bristol Myers Squibb Foundation on Its Diversity in Clinical Trials Career Development Program. [updated May 19, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­the-bristol-myers-squibb-foundation-on-its-diversity-in-clinical­trials-career-development-program/

Ref. 850. Bristol Myers Squibb. Bristol Myers Squibb Foundation Honors Diversity and Health Equity Leader by Naming Diversity in Clinical Trials Training Program after Him; Welcomes Gilead Sciences as Program Supporter. [updated April 11, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­Diversity-and-Health-Equity-Leader-By-Naming-Diversity-in­Clinical-Trials-Training-Program-After-Him-Welcomes-Gilead­Sciences-as-Program-Supporter/default.aspx

References 851-900

Ref. 851. Smiley RA, Ruttinger C, Oliveira CM, Hudson LR, Allgeyer R, Reneau KA, et al. The 2020 National Nursing Workforce Survey. Journal of Nursing Regulation 2021;12:S1-S96.

Ref. 852. Zhang X, Tai D, Pforsich H, Lin VW. United States Registered Nurse Workforce Report Card and Shortage Forecast: A Revisit. Am J Med Qual 2018;33:229-36.

Ref. 853. Yang Y, Mason D. COVID-19’s Impact on Nursing Shortages, the Rise of Travel Nurses, and Price Gouging. [updated January 28, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 854. Yong E. Why Health-Care Workers Are Quitting in Droves. [updated November 16, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­exodus-of-americas-health-care-workers/620713/

Ref. 855. American Association of Colleges of Nurses. Nursing Shortage. [updated September 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 856. Mailloux CG, Halesey E. Patient Navigators as Essential Members of the Healthcare Team: A Review of the Literature. 2018.

Ref. 857. Charlot M, Stein JN, Damone E, Wood I, Forster M, Baker S, et al. Effect of an Antiracism Intervention on Racial Disparities in Time to Lung Cancer Surgery. J Clin Oncol. 2022; 40:1755-1762.

Ref. 858. Shreya Kangovi NM, David Grande, Judith A. Long, and David A. Asch. Evidence-Based Community Health Worker Program Addresses Unmet Social Needs and Generates Positive Return on Investment. Health Affairs 2020;39:207-13.

Ref. 859. Corbett CM, Somers TJ, Nuñez CM, Majestic CM, Shelby RA, Worthy VC, et al. Evolution of a Longitudinal, Multidisciplinary, and Scalable Patient Navigation Matrix Model. Cancer Medicine 2020;9:3202-10.

Ref. 860. Zippia. Community Health Worker Demographics and Statistics in the US. [updated April 18, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 861. Paula A. Braveman EA, Dwayne Proctor, Tina Kauh, and Nicole Holm. Systemic and Structural Racism: Definitions, Examples, Health Damages, and Approaches to Dismantling. Health Affairs 2022;41:171-8.

Ref. 862. Wiley. Asian American Communities and Health: Context, Research, Policy, and Action. [updated April 2009, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:,+Research,+Policy,+and+Action-p-9780787998295

Ref. 863. Huang SJ, Sehgal NJ. Association of Historic Redlining and Present-Day Health in Baltimore. PLOS ONE 2022;17:e0261028.

Ref. 864. O’Campo P, Xue X, Wang MC, Caughy M. Neighborhood Risk Factors for Low Birthweight in Baltimore: A Multilevel Analysis. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87:1113-8.

Ref. 865. Krieger N, Wye GV, Huynh M, Waterman PD, Maduro G, Li W, et al. Structural Racism, Historical Redlining, and Risk of Preterm Birth in New York City, 2013–2017. American Journal of Public Health 2020;110:1046-53.

Ref. 866. Lynch EE, Malcoe LH, Laurent SE, Richardson J, Mitchell BC, Meier HCS. The Legacy of Structural Racism: Associations between Historic Redlining, Current Mortgage Lending, and Health. SSM – Population Health 2021;14:100793.

Ref. 867. Aghdam N, Carrasquilla M, Wang E, Pepin AN, Danner M, Ayoob M, et al. Ten-Year Single Institutional Analysis of Geographic and Demographic Characteristics of Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer. Front Oncol 2020;10:616286.

Ref. 868. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Equity in Cancer Prevention and Control. [updated December 16, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­equity/equity.htm

Ref. 869. National Cancer Institute. Partnerships to Advance Health Equity Pache. [updated February 17, 2015, cited Available from:

Ref. 870. Chicago Cancer Health Equity Collaborative. Background. [updated January 25, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 871. National Cancer Institute. State Cancer Profiles Illinois. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 872. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fuchs HE, Jemal A. Cancer Statistics, 2021. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2021;71:7-33.

Ref. 873. Chicago Cancer Health Equity Collaborative. Chicago Cancer Health Equity Collaborative. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 874. Simon MA. Architecture Matters-Moving Beyond “Business as Usual”: The Chicago Cancer Health Equity Collaborative. Prog Community Health Partnersh 2019;13:1-4.

Ref. 875. Barrett NJ, Ingraham KL, Bethea K, Hwa-Lin P, Chirinos M, Fish LJ, et al. Chapter Eight – Project Place: Enhancing Community and Academic Partnerships to Describe and Address Health Disparities. In: Ford ME, Esnaola NF, Salley JD, editors. Advances in Cancer Research: Academic Press; 2020. p 167-88.

Ref. 876. Duke Cancer Institute. Closing the Cancer Disparities Gap in the Age of COVID. [updated March 12, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­cancer-disparities-gap-age-covid

Ref. 877. Public Health Law Center at Mitchell Hamline School of Law. The Tobacco Industry and the Black Community: The Targeting of African Americans. [updated June 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 878. Villanti AC, Mowery PD, Delnevo CD, Niaura RS, Abrams DB, Giovino GA. Changes in the Prevalence and Correlates of Menthol Cigarette Use in the USA, 2004-2014. Tob Control 2016;25:ii14-ii20.

Ref. 879. Ross KC, Dempsey DA, St. Helen G, Delucchi K, Benowitz NL. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2016;25:936-43.

Ref. 880. Okuyemi KS, Faseru B, Sanderson Cox L, Bronars CA, Ahluwalia JS. Relationship between Menthol Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation among African American Light Smokers. Addiction 2007;102:1979-86.

Ref. 881. Los Angeles Times. FDA Moves toward Restricting Menthol in Cigarettes. [updated July 23, 2013, cited 2022 April 29]. Available from:­sci-menthol-cigarettes-20130724-story.html

Ref. 882. Tobacco Control Legal Consortium. Citizen Petition to Food & Drug Admin., Prohibiting Mentol as a Characterizing Flavor in Cigarettes. [updated April 12, 2013, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­fdacitizenpetition-menthol-2013___F3F578.pdf

Ref. 883. National Archives and Records Administration. Tobacco Product Standard for Menthol in Cigarettes. [updated April 22, 2022, scited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 884. Cadham CJ, Sanchez-Romero LM, Fleischer NL, Mistry R, Hirschtick JL, Meza R, et al. The Actual and Anticipated Effects of a Menthol Cigarette Ban: A Scoping Review. BMC Public Health 2020;20:1055.

Ref. 885. Nyman AL, Sterling KL, Weaver SR, Majeed BA, Eriksen MP. Little Cigars and Cigarillos: Users, Perceptions, and Reasons for Use. Tob Regul Sci 2016;2:239-51.

Ref. 886. Ambrose BK, Day HR, Rostron B, Conway KP, Borek N, Hyland A, et al. Flavored Tobacco Product Use among US Youth Aged 12-17 Years, 2013-2014. JAMA 2015;314:1871-3.

Ref. 887. Kong G, Bold KW, Simon P, Camenga DR, Cavallo DA, Krishnan-Sarin S. Reasons for Cigarillo Initiation and Cigarillo Manipulation Methods among Adolescents. Tob Regul Sci 2017;3:s48-s58.

Ref. 888. National Archives and Records Administration. Tobacco Product Standard for Characterizing Flavors in Cigars. [updated April 3, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­product-standard-for-characterizing-flavors-in-cigars

Ref. 889. L. Rostron B, G. Corey C, Holder-Hayes E, K. Ambrose B. Estimating the Potential Public Health Impact of Prohibiting Characterizing Flavors in Cigars Throughout the US. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019;16:3234.

Ref. 890. Odani S, Armour BS, Graffunder CM, Garrett BE, Agaku IT. Prevalence and Disparities in Tobacco Product Use among American Indians/Alaska Natives – United States, 2010-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:1374-8.

Ref. 891. Lempert LK, Glantz SA. Tobacco Industry Promotional Strategies Targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and Exploiting Tribal Sovereignty. Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2019;21:940-8.

Ref. 892. National Cancer Institute. Air Is Life: The Navajo Nation’s Historic Commercial Tobacco Ban. [updated February 7, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­ban?cid=eb_govdel

Ref. 893. Babb S, Malarcher A, Schauer G, Asman K, Jamal A. Quitting Smoking among Adults – United States, 2000-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;65:1457-64.

Ref. 894. Richard P, West K, Ku L. The Return on Investment of a Medicaid Tobacco Cessation Program in Massachusetts. PLOS ONE 2012;7:e29665.

Ref. 895. Ramsey AT, Prentice D, Ballard E, Chen L-S, Bierut LJ. Leverage Points to Improve Smoking Cessation Treatment in a Large Tertiary Care Hospital: A Systems-Based Mixed Methods Study. BMJ open 2019;9:e030066.

Ref. 896. Tools & Tips. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 897. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tips from Former Smokers. [updated April 25, 2022, cited 2022 April 29]. Available from:

Ref. 898. Giuliano AR, Palefsky JM, Goldstone S, Moreira ED, Penny ME, Aranda C, et al. Efficacy of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine against HPV Infection and Disease in Males. New England Journal of Medicine 2011;364:401-11.

Ref. 899. Palefsky JM, Giuliano AR, Goldstone S, Moreira ED, Aranda C, Jessen H, et al. HPV Vaccine against Anal HPV Infection and Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia. New England Journal of Medicine 2011;365:1576-85.

Ref. 900. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Supplementary Tables for Estimated Vaccination Coverage with Selected Vaccines and Doses among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years and Total Survey Error—National Immunization Survey–Teen, United States, 2020. [updated August 12, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­estimates-2020-tables.html#table-01

References 901-950

Ref. 901. Department of Health Policy School of Public Health and Health Services The George Washington University Medical Center. The Affordable Care Act: U.S. Vaccine Policy and Practice. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 902. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization. [updated August 3, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 903. National Conference of State Legislatures. HPV Vaccine: State Legislation and Regulation. [updated May 26, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 904. World Health Organization. Cervical Cancer Elimination Initiative. [updated June 22, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­initiative#:~:text=Cervical%20cancer%20is%20preventable%20and,300%20000%20women%20in%202018

Ref. 905. American Association for Cancer Research. Health Organizations, Patient Advocates to Congress: We Can and Must Eliminate HPV-Related Cancer. [updated June 27, 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 906. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Obesity and Cancer. [updated February 18, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 907. Slawinski CGV, Barriuso J, Guo H, Renehan AG. Obesity and Cancer Treatment Outcomes: Interpreting the Complex Evidence. Clinical Oncology 2020;32:591-608.

Ref. 908. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, 2020. [updated November 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­and-ethnicity/2020/home.htm

Ref. 909. Kiaser Family Foundation. The Families First Coronavirus Response Act: Summary of Key Provisions. [updated March 23, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­response-act-summary-of-key-provisions/

Ref. 910. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. States Are Using Much-Needed Temporary Flexibility in Snap to Respond to COVID-19 Challenges. [updated October 4, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­respond-to

Ref. 911. U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA Modernizes the Thrifty Food Plan, Updates Snap Benefits. [updated August 16, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­updates-snap-benefits

Ref. 912. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Policy Support. Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2019. [updated March 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reach Program Impact | Dnpao. [updated March 10, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­programs/reach/program_impact/index.htm

Ref. 914. Trust for America’s Health. The State of Obesity 2021: Better Policies for a Healthier America. [updated September 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 915. Gaskin J, Coyle D, Whyte J, Krewksi D. Global Estimate of Lung Cancer Mortality Attributable to Residential Radon. Environ Health Perspect. 2018;126:057009.

Ref. 916. Minnesota Department of Health. Radon Mitigation Rates in Metro Area Reflect Disparities in Income, Housing, Home Values. [updated January 7, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 917. Stanifer SR, Rayens MK, Wiggins A, Hahn EJ. Social Determinants of Health, Environmental Exposures and Home Radon Testing. West J Nurs Res. 2022;44:636-642.

Ref. 918. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The National Radon Action Plan – a Strategy for Saving Lives. [updated January 28, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 919. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Epa and Partners Make Progress on the National Radon Action Plan, Saving Nearly 2,000 Lives Yearly from Radon-Induced Lung Cancer. [updated May 20, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­action-plan-saving-nearly-2000-lives

Ref. 920. Kansas State University National Radon Program. Radon Test Kits Available for Purchase. [updated October 23, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 921. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Hud Announces $4 Million Radon Testing Notice of Funding Opportunity. [updated January 26, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 922. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Initial List of Hazardous Air Pollutants with Modifications. [updated January 5, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­list-hazardous-air-pollutants-modifications

Ref. 923. ProPublica. Poison in the Air. [updated November 2, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 924. Reuters. Formosa Plastics to Pay Nearly $3 Mln to Settle Air Pollution Charges. [updated September 13, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­charges-2021-09-13/

Ref. 925. Firestone Polymers of Sulphur to Pay More Than $3.35m to Settle Air Pollution Complaints. [updated February 23, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­3f21374778b4.html

Ref. 926. Tampa Bay Times. Poisoned. [updated March 24, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 927. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Journey to Justice. [updated February 10, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 928. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PFAS Strategic Roadmap: EPA’s Commitments to Action 2021-2024. [updated January 27, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­action-2021-2024

Ref. 929. Park SK, Peng Q, Ding N, Mukherjee B, Harlow SD. Determinants of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Midlife Women: Evidence of Racial/Ethnic and Geographic Differences in Pfas Exposure. Environ Res 2019;175:186-99.

Ref. 930. Union of Concerned Scientists. PFAS Contamination Is an Equity Issue, and President Trump’s EPA Is Failing to Fix It. [updated October 30, 2019, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­issue-president-trumps-epa-is-failing-to-fix-it/

Ref. 931. Michigan Live. Advisory Warns of Pfas in Beef from Michigan Cattle Farm. [updated January 28, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 932. Lee D-C, Liang H, Chen N, Shi L, Liu Y. Cancer Screening among Racial/Ethnic Groups in Health Centers. International Journal for Equity in Health 2020;19:43.

Ref. 933. Susan G. Komen. How Do Breast Cancer Screening Rates Compare among Different Groups in the U.S. [updated March 3, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 934. Lozier JW, Fedewa SA, Smith RA, Silvestri GA. Lung Cancer Screening Eligibility and Screening Patterns among Black and White Adults in the United States. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2130350.

Ref. 935. Haviland KS, Swette S, Kelechi T, Mueller M. Barriers and Facilitators to Cancer Screening among LGBTQ Individuals with Cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2020;47:44-55.

Ref. 936. Fiscella K, Humiston S, Hendren S, Winters P, Jean-Pierre P, Idris A, et al. Eliminating Disparities in Cancer Screening and Follow­up of Abnormal Results: What Will It Take? J Health Care Poor Underserved 2011;22:83-100.

Ref. 937. Tangka F, Kenny K, Miller J, Howard DH. The Eligibility and Reach of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program after Implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Cancer Causes & Control. 2020;31:473-89.

Ref. 938. Le Blanc JM, Heller DR, Friedrich A, Lannin DR, Park TS. Association of Medicaid Expansion under the Affordable Care Act with Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis. JAMA Surgery 2020;155:752-8.

Ref. 939. Health Resources and Services Administration. What Is a Health Center? [updated August 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 940. Huguet N, Hodes T, Holderness H, Bailey SR, DeVoe JE, Marino M. Community Health Centers, Performance in Cancer Screening and Prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2022;62:e97-e106.

Ref. 941. National Academies. Innovation in Electronic Health Records for Oncology Care Research and Surveillance a Workshop. [updated February 21, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­research-and-surveillance-a-workshop

Ref. 942. Han JJ, Kim JW, Suh KJ, Kim J-W, Kim SH, Kim YJ, et al. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Enrolled in Clinical Trials Compared with Those of Patients Outside Clinical Trials in Advanced Gastric Cancer. Asia-Pacific J Clin Oncol 2019;15:158-65.

Ref. 943. Koo KC, Lee JS, Kim JW, Han KS, Lee KS, Kim DK, et al. Impact of Clinical Trial Participation on Survival in Patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Center Analysis. BMC Cancer 2018;18:468.

Ref. 944. Narui K, Ohno S, Mukai H, Hozumi Y, Miyoshi Y, Yoshino H, et al. Overall Survival of Participants Compared to Non-Participants in a Randomized-Controlled Trial (Select Bc): A Prospective Cohort Study. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2527.

Ref. 945. Bleyer A, Tai E, Siegel S. Role of Clinical Trials in Survival Progress of American Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer—and Lack Thereof. Pediatric Blood & Cancer 2018;65:e27074.

Ref. 946. H.R.6584 – Depict Act. [updated February 3, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 947. American Cancer Society. Barriers to Patient Enrollment in Therapeutic Clinical Trials for Cancer. [updated April 11, 2018, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­trials-cancer

Ref. 948. Borno HT, Zhang L, Siegel A, Chang E, Ryan CJ. At What Cost to Clinical Trial Enrollment? A Retrospective Study of Patient Travel Burden in Cancer Clinical Trials. The Oncologist 2018;23:1242-9.

Ref. 949. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Clinical Trial Conduct During the COVID-19 Pandemic. [updated June 1, 2020, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­covid-19-drugs/clinical-trial-conduct-during-covid-19-pandemic

Ref. 950. S.2706 – Diverse Trials Act. [updated August 10, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

References 951-987

Ref. 951. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Project Community. [updated April 20, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­community

Ref. 952. Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Office of Health Policy. Access to Preventive Services without Cost-Sharing: Evidence from the Affordable Care Act. [updated January 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­services-ib-2022.pdf

Ref. 953. Jemal A, Lin CC, Davidoff AJ, Han X. Changes in Insurance Coverage and Stage at Diagnosis among Nonelderly Patients with Cancer after the Affordable Care Act. J Clin Oncol 2017;35:3906-15.

Ref. 954. Eguia E, Cobb AN, Kothari AN, Molefe A, Afshar M, Aranha GV, et al. Impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid Expansion on Cancer Admissions and Surgeries. Annals of surgery 2018;268:584-90.

Ref. 955. Tarazi WW, Bradley CJ, Harless DW, Bear HD, Sabik LM. Medicaid Expansion and Access to Care among Cancer Survivors: A Baseline Overview. J Cancer Surviv 2016;10:583-92.

Ref. 956. Han X, Jemal A, Zheng Z, Sauer AG, Fedewa S, Yabroff KR. Changes in Noninsurance and Care Unaffordability among Cancer Survivors Following the Affordable Care Act. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2019;112:688-97.

Ref. 957. Nipp RD, Shui AM, Perez GK, Kirchhoff AC, Peppercorn JM, Moy B, et al. Patterns in Health Care Access and Affordability among Cancer Survivors During Implementation of the Affordable Care Act. JAMA Oncol 2018;4:791-7.

Ref. 958. Fiala MA. Disparities in Health Care Affordability among Childhood Cancer Survivors Persist Following the Affordable Care Act. Pediatric Blood & Cancer 2021;68:e29370.

Ref. 959. Nikpay SS, Tebbs MG, Castellanos EH. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion and Gains in Health Insurance Coverage and Access among Cancer Survivors. Cancer 2018;124:2645-52.

Ref. 960. Salam Abdus TMS, and Patricia Keenan. The Financial Burdens of High-Deductible Plans. Health Affairs 2016;35:2297-301.

Ref. 961. Brot-Goldberg ZC, Chandra A, Handel BR, Kolstad JT. What Does a Deductible Do? The Impact of Cost-Sharing on Health Care Prices, Quantities, and Spending Dynamics*. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 2017;132:1261-318.

Ref. 962. Abdus S, Keenan PS. Financial Burden of Employer-Sponsored High-Deductible Health Plans for Low-Income Adults with Chronic Health Conditions. JAMA Internal Medicine 2018;178:1706-8.

Ref. 963. Indian Health Service. About IHS. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 964. Leston J, Reilley B. Toward a New Era for the Indian Health System. New England Journal of Medicine 2021;385:1249-51.

Ref. 965. Kiaser Family Foundation. The Role of Medicare and the Indian Health Service for American Indians and Alaska Natives: Health, Access and Coverage. [updated December 18, 2014, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­role-of-medicare-and-the-indian-health-service-for-american­indians-and-alaska-natives-health-access-and-coverage-report/

Ref. 966. Rural Health Information Hub. Rural Hospitals Overview. [updated February 10, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­hospital

Ref. 967. Crown A, Joseph K-A. Aso Author Reflections: Reinforcing the Safety Net: Supporting Safety-Net Hospitals in Mitigating Breast Cancer Disparities. Ann Surg Oncol. 2022 Mar 30.

Ref. 967a. Winkelman TNA, Vickery KD. Refining the Definition of US Safety-Net Hospitals to Improve Population Health. JAMA Netw Open 2019;2:e198562.

Ref. 967b. Kaiser Family Foundation. Key Facts About the Uninsured Population. [updated November 6, 2020, cited 2022 May 31]. Available from:­facts-about-the-uninsured-population/

Ref. 967c. Crown A, Ramiah K, Siegel B, Joseph K-A. The Role of Safety-Net Hospitals in Reducing Disparities in Breast Cancer Care. Ann Surg Oncol. 2022 Mar 31.

Ref. 967d. Newman LA, Winn RA, Carethers JM. Similarities in Risk for Covid-19 and Cancer Disparities. Clinical Cancer Research 2021;27:24-7.

Ref. 967e. Irwin KE, Ko N, Walsh EP, Decker V, Arrillaga-Romany I, Plotkin SR, et al. Developing a Virtual Equity Hub: Adapting the Tumor Board Model for Equity in Cancer Care. The Oncologist 2022 Apr 20:oyac069.

Ref. 968. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital. [updated March 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 969. 340B Health. 340B Drug Pricing Program Overview. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 970. U.S. Government Accountability Office. Rural Hospital Closures: Affected Residents Had Reduced Access to Health Care Services. [updated January 21, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 971. Beckers Hospital Review. 47 Hospitals Closed, Filed for Bankruptcy This Year. [updated October 16, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 972. The National Academy for State Health Policy. State Community Health Worker Models. [updated December 10, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­community-health-worker-models/

Ref. 973. McLaughlin SA, DeSnyder SM, Klimberg S, Alatriste M, Boccardo F, Smith ML, et al. Considerations for Clinicians in the Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema, Recommendations from an Expert Panel: Part 2: Preventive and Therapeutic Options. Ann Surg Oncol 2017;24:2827-35.

Ref. 974. National Lymphedema Network. Lymphedema Therapy. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 975. National Lymphedema Network. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Lymphedema. [updated February 2011, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 976. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Billing and Coding: Lymphedema Decongestive Treatment. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 977. Lymphedema Treatment Act. Background & History. [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­information/

Ref. 978. S.1315 – Lymphedema Treatment Act. [updated April 22, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 979. H.R.3630 – Lymphedema Treatment Act. [updated May 31, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 980. Broadbandnow. Broadbandnow Estimates Availability for All 50 States; Confirms That More Than 42 Million Americans Do Not Have Access to Broadband. [updated October 21, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 981. Lai J, Widmar NO. Revisiting the Digital Divide in the COVID-19 Era. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 2021;43:458-64.

Ref. 982. North Carolina Department of Information Technology. Who Is Affected by the Digital Divide? [updated April 22, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­divide/who-affected-digital-divide

Ref. 983. Universal Service Administrative Company. 2020 Annual Report. [updated March 31, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:

Ref. 984. U.S. Department of Commerce. Fact Sheet: Department of Commerce’s Use of Bipartisan Infrastructure Deal Funding to Help Close the Digital Divide. [updated April 20, 2022, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­use-bipartisan-infrastructure-deal-funding

Ref. 985. Institute for Local Self-Reliance. Snapshots of Municipal Broadband. [updated May 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­Snapshots-Fact-Sheet.pdf

Ref. 986. Broadbandnow. Municipal Broadband Is Restricted in 18 States across the U.S. In 2021. [updated April 6, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­broadband-roadblocks/

Ref. 987. The U.S. Department of Justice. Justice Department Announces New Initiative to Combat Redlining. [updated October 29, 2021, cited 2022 April 22]. Available from:­redlining